Review Questions Unit 1 Neuro.docx

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Review Questions Unit 1 9/19/2013 7:25:00 PM ANATOMY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1.) cns and pns from cns is brain and spinal from pns is somatic (cranial and spinal nerves) and autonomic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) 2.)sensory function (create sensory reality) motor function (control movement) plasticity (brain adapts) 3.) cerebrum (left and right hemispheres) cerebellum (little brain, motor coordination) brain stem 4.)  forebrain (endbrain and between brain)  mid brain  hindbrain 5.)Gray Matter: collects and modifies info White Matter: forms connections between brain cells 6.) Cortex, corpus callosum, limbic system, basal ganglia, olfactory bulb 7.) Cortex: responsible for conscious behavior, part of end brain  frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe 8.) Gyrus: small bumps formed by folding of cerebral cortex Sulcus: groove in brain matter 9.) Precentral gyrus: frontal lobe, primary motor cortex postcentral gyrus: temporal lobe, affects primary sensory cortex 10.) primary cortexes: motor and sensory association cortex: complex mental functions 11.) PRIMARY SENSORY CORTICLE: upper right of hemisphere (side view) PRIMARY MOTOR COTEX: upper left of hemisphere (side view) 12.) Corpus Callosum: fiber connecting two cerebral hemispheres 13.)limbic system: group of structures between cortex and brain stem  amygdala (almond)  hippocampus (tube under amygdala)  cingulate cortex (area that looks like rainbow)  function: emotions, sex, memory 14.) Location: middle of each hemispheres function: movement control, addiction, pleasure and reward 15.) thalamus: large beans in middle of hemispheres, gateway for channeling sensory info to cortex, processes info hypothalamus: small, right along medial line in each hemi., eating sex and temp. regulaton 16.) pituitary gland: hormone function pineal gland: sleep control both control different hormones 17.)function: motor and sensory two main parts:tectum and tegmentum cavity of midbrain: cerebral aqueduct 18.) medulla: vital functions such as breathing and heart rate pons: important movements of body cerebellum: controls complex movements 19.)2 lateral ventricles, third in between brain and fourth in hindbrain cerebral aqueduct connects third and fourth contrain CSF 20.)Meninges: three layers of protective tissue (dura mater, arachnoid layer, pia mater) protects brain and spinal cord 21.) is in spinal column, surrounded by meninges, has 30 segments ventral (motor) horns and dorsal (sensory) horns: gray matter is organized in these ventral roots: 2 per segment, motor dorsal roots: 2 per segment, sensory spinal segments: 30 of these spinal nerves: sensory and motor (ventral and dorsal fibers) central canal: cavity in spinal cord, contains CSF 22.) sympathetic: arouses, fight or flight parasympathetic: calming, reverses fight or flight Review Questions Unit 1 9/19/2013 7:25:00 PM 1.)neuronal (excitable, communicate with each other, cannot be replaced) glial (non excitable, support, nurture and protect neurons, constantly replace self) 2.) Neuron Doctrine: nervous system is made of discrete cells, neurons are units of brain function Camillo Golgi: said nervous system is network of interconnected fibers Santiago Ramon-i-Cajal: thought of doctrine 3.) cell body or soma, dendrites, axon 4.) axon carries info and only one per neuron, dendrite gathers info from other neurons and is many per neuron 5.) Dendritic Spine: protrusion from dendrite that increases surface area and is usually point of contact with axons of other cells Axon Hillock: juncture of soma and axon where action potential is generated Axon Collaterals: branches of an axon Axon boutons/terminal: knobs on axon that convey info to other neurons 6.)connection between one neuron and another, usually between axon bouton and dendritic spine 7.) DENDRITE to CELL BODY to AXOND to AXON TERMINAL to TARGET 8.) Sensory (bring info from receptors to CNS) Motor (sends signal from brain and spinal cord to muscles) Interneurons (associates sensory and motor activity in CNS) Excitatory (form excitatory synapses on other neurons and produce excited responses) Inhibitory (form inhibitory synapses on other neurons and produce inhibitory responses) 9.) Ependymal (secrete CSF) Astrocyte (nutritive and support function) Microglial (defensive function like immune system) Oligodendroglial (form myelin around axons in brain and spinal cord) Schwann (wraps around peripheral nerves to make myelin) 10.) microglial 11.) myelin: glial coating that surrounds axons in CNS and PNS, oligodendrogial and schwann cells found around axons in CNS and PNS helps communicate fast, exposes fiber 12.) tight junction between the ce
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