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PSY 0010 Comprehensive Lecture Notes

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University of Pittsburgh
PSY 0010

Intro What is psych? Study of behavior and mental processes (recently important) Subject matter Observable behavior Voluntary and involuntary Physiological activity (brain) Not observable Mental processes Thoughts/feelings subjective Experience of feelings not observable Methods Observation, measuring, analyzing, theorizing Bias against mental processes Psych and science Scientific method - guarding against incorrect conclusions about things We naturally look for evidence that support our own beliefs, are skeptical of anything opposite Scientific method deliberately challenges beliefs Which is the effective popular/sensible intervention? Scared Straight - makes teens act tougher DARE - no difference Critical Incident Stress Debriefing - cau cause PTSD video self-confrontation for alcohol dependence - strong(er) urge to drink Answer: none of the above Research methods Theory: explains set of facts/observations Describes causal connections Is falsifiable Possible that evidence against can be found Anything that cannot be falsified is not a theory Contrast with faith - cannot be falsified, so not a theory Allows prediction of new observations If x causes y in z situation, x in z -> y Research tests a theory by testing its predictions Systematic and objective observation EX: what is the relationship between violence on TV and aggression in children? Scientific method: 1. observe 2. generalize from observations Will observation repeat in multiple situations? 3. develop a theory 4. test the theory 5. revise theory Testing a theory Hypothesis: testable proposition describing the relationship that may exist between events If _____ then _____ Testing hypothesis: who will be observed? Cannot study entire population, need a sample to study and draw conclusions about population What method of observation will be used? Descriptive Methods Naturalistic observation Real world settings Advantages: Discovery of initial connection Real-world applicability Disadvantages: Uncontrolled Might be other influences Observer bias may influence observations Other approach: case study Observe and describe a single individual EX: memory research - HM - brain surgery changed memory Most of our current knowledge on memory comes from his case study Advantages to case studies: Rich detail Access to rare phenomena Proof of existence - proves some things are possible Disadvantages: Uncontrolled Problem of generalizability 3rd approach: surveys/interviews Obtain a representative sample that mirrors the population of interest Randomly select participants - in theory, gives each part of population an equal chance to be in the study Administer self-report measures i.e. interview, questionnaires Advantages: Generalizable Efficient, cost-effective Disadvantages: Sample vs. population - how representative is the sample? Logistically challenging Response biases Social desirability - they might look bad if answering truthfully, so answers not always truthful Experimental Methods Systematically vary an aspect of situation, control all others, observe (measure) effects to establish a cause/effect relationship Aspect of situation - variable - must have at least 2 values Elements of experiment: Independent variable: manipulated by researcher; cause Dependent variable: measured byr esearcher; effect EX: hypothesis: if (kids exposed to violent TV) then (aggression will increase) Independent variable: violent TV Dependent variable: aggressive behavior Other elements Operational definition: specify and define phenomena of interest so they can be experimentally studied Define IV so manipulation possible - exposure to X hours violent TV Define DV so measurement possible - number of aggressive behaviors Controlling uncontrolled variables Assignment of participants to groups: experimental/control groups Control group: exposed to experimental environment but not IV Randomization: ensures equivalent groups before the IV is manipulated Conducting a Study Collecting data info gathered by researcher, used to test hypothesis Analyzing results statistical analyses determine acceptance or rejection of hypothesis Publishing and replicating study peer review: critique by other researchers before publication (anonymous) publication: hypothesis, methods, participants, results, discussion (implications, limitations, future research needed) discussion important to the continuation of science republication: repetition of study by other researchers to see if same results are found NEVER treat findings of any study as definitive! Analyzing Data with Statistics Stats methods for analysis, interpretation, presentation of numerical data 2 types of stats in psych 1. descriptive stats 2. inferential stats - are these numbers/values meaningful? / used to test hypothesis Descriptive Stats measures of central tendency - the "average" person single score representative of entire set of data mean: arithmetic average median: less affected by outliers in the set than the mean mode: most frequently occurring value measures of variability: how similar/diverse scores are frequency: number of times a number appears in data set (frequency distribution chart) normal distribution - "bell curve" scores cluster around the middle can calculate standard deviation (SD) - measure of how much scores will vary around the mean larger SD, more variability in the data if (a) = 5, 68% of scores fall between 95 and 105 if mean is 100 smaller SD, more the mean mean represents the average score basically, SD = give or take (a) amount Measures of effect size - how large is the effect of the IV? size of difference between distribution of scores in the experimental group vs. the control group difference between 1 (control) and 10 (experimental) as mean in kids + aggression study and 2 (control) and 4 (experimental) significant Cohen's d represents difference between means of two distributions smaller d = lesser difference between means in psych, d of .5 can be significant enough to use intervention/treatment Inferential Stats significance testing - how likely that difference in DV due to chance/error/luck rather than caused by IV? calculated with probability level (p) t-test used to calculate: compute two means to see how probable it is they come from the same population ask what is probability of findings being luck, not probability of them being true in psych, if chances < 5% that finding was luck and 95% correct hypothesis, the finding is valid if much higher than 5%, redo or confirm no hypothesis normally written p < .05 etc. etc today more within p < .01 than p < .05 do not confuse effect size and significance! can have huge effect size but no significance (because of bias, etc.) or huge significance but barely any effect (increased IQ by 1 point, etc.) 2 Traditions in Psych 1. applying psych knowledge to real-world problems practical/applied psych development of therapies (psychotherapy, counseling), education 2. developing psych knowledge via scientific research academic tradition empiricism - gain knowledge through direct observation of subject matter Early Approaches to Psych "psychophysics" Gustav Fechner 1850 study subjective experience of physical sensations via laboratory observation detection of sensory stimulus under ideal conditions sensitivity (thresholds) of the senses absolute threshold: amount of stimulus energy necessary for detection in 50% of trials below 50% - subliminal stimulation More psychophysics difference threshold: smallest change in intensity of stimulus we can observe 50% of the time Weber's law: size of change needed to notice a difference is proportional to original stimulus in dimly lit room, moderate amount of light more noticeable than same amount added in brightly lit room Modern approaches signal detection theory: sensation not just product of stimulus; otehr factors impact detection "background noise" detector sensitivity varies person to person in both (genetic) sense organs and in the brain and how it processes stimulus attention/distraction thresholds vary with all factors - no absolute threshold Analytic Introspection in the Laboratory Wilhelm Wundt: first lab study of psych (1879) analytic introspection: present observers with controlled experience train observers to report objectively on resulting mental events hoped to describe structure of how brain works Structuralism Edward B. Titchener (1890) Wundt's student continued analytic introspection mental atomism: if objects made up of atoms combined in complex ways, mental atoms/ elements combined to create mental events combination of elements broken down into feeling/sensation Titchener hoped to create periodic table of mental elements results of lab introspection not replicable consensus: introspection NOT viable method Functionalism challenged and replaced structuralism William James (1889) disbelieved mental elements "stream of consciousness" instead James didn't use empirical methods - used philosophical methods i.e. contemplation, reflection, theorizing explore purposes (functions) of mental processes and why the mind works the way it does his theory: our minds work the way they do to enable us to adapt to our environment James influenced by work of Charles Darwin (1859) natural selection/survival of the fittest individuals best adapted to their environment survive to reproduce individuals that reproduce pass on their adaptations/characteristics more adaptive characteristics become more common and vice versa all species of organisms came to their current form through this process Evolutionary Psych humans shaped by evolutionary forces - includes psych adaptations evolved through natural selection much of human behavior generated by psych adaptations evolved to solve comon problems of ancestors' environments Gestalt Psych Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka (1912) our minds automatically interpret and organize our experience of events in predictable ways based on the brain what guides brain to organize sensory info one way or another into our perceptual world drew line of difference between sensation and perception Gestalt Theory of Perception: brains structured to organize sensory stimuli into meaningful patterns we see whole/pattern before individual parts whole more than sum of parts e.g. ambiguous figures Figure-Ground Organization figure: sharply delineated, distinct shape "thing" closer to viewer more impressive, better remembered ground: no clear contours, indistinct figure appears to stand out against it experiment: put people in all-gray room, they begin to hallucinate - create figure for ground Law of Good Figure (Prägnang): we perceive "best" - most coherent - figure against ground Gestalt Theory of Perceptual Organization apparent motion - lights lighting up in turn, mind organizes to see motion despite none Principles of grouping: 1. proximity: elements near each other grouped together 2. similarity: elements with similar attributes grouped together 3. closure: elements with missing contours/boundaries completed 4. continuation: elements that appear to flow/follow in the same direction grouped together Theories of Perceptual Processing feature detectors: cells in brain specialize in detection of specific features of stimuli Hubel & Wiesel: cats orientation of lines, light/dark patterns, edges and motion -> perceived through specific firing of specific neutrons bottom-up processing: using minimal patterns to identify objects from simple to complex to hypercomplex cells in cerebral cortex top-down processing: sensory inputs organized by mind according to preset structures/schemes learning-based inference theory: perceptual organization primarily shaped by prior learning and experience context and expectations (perceptual set) influence perception Auditory Speech Processing McGurk effect: speech perception involves processing of auditory and visual sensations in the brain auditory /ba/, visual /ga/, we hear /da/ - compromise Perceptual constancies: ability to recognize same object as the same despite changing illumination, distance, location i.e. color, shape, size constancy More on size constancy binocular depth cues retinal disparity: object looks slightly different in either retina brain combines the 2 to create depth perception binocular onvergence: eyes converge or diverge to keep moving object in focus interpreted by the brain to tell distance monocular depth cues interposition linear perspective relative size texture gradient atmospheric perspective shadow/shading motion parallax Behavioral learning Learning and Behavior Behaviorism John B. Watson (1913): psych should be a branch of experimental natural science thinking and emotion lay outside of scientific psych because they cannot be directly observed proper subject matter: observable behavior behavior all we need to study because all behavior learned from/shaped by environment people born as blank slates, shaped by environment - if we control environment, can control people Pavlov and his dog set out to study digestion in dogs apparatus collected dog's saliva used meat powder to stimulate saliva ON ACCIDENT: realized dogs salivated at sight of powder, sound of feeder assistant coming terminology: stimulus: event/object in environment to which organism responds reflex: involuntary response to stimulus initially, dogs responded to UCS - unconditioned (learned) stimulus UCR - response to UCS CS: when neutral stimulus (d/n trigger UCR) presented repeatedly before UCS, neutral stim elicits CR: learned response UCS -> UCR / CS -> UCS -> UCR / CS -> UCR (over time) Acquisition learning phase CR gradually established Extinction CS presented repeatedly without UCS strength of conditioned response becomes weaker typically doesn't disappear altogether Spontaneous recovery when CS presented again after pause in extinction trials, CR suddenly reemerges suggests extinction trials might weaken CR, but doesn't really eliminate Aspects of Classical Conditioning stimulus generalization: CR occurs when stimulus is similar (not identical) to CS presented stimulus discrimination: opposite of stim gen higher order conditioning: established CS paired with neutral stimulus, neutral stimulus -> CS pair sound with light - light alone can also elicit CR Aversive conditioning classical conditioning to unpleasant UCS stimulus triggers pain/negative emotional response Little Albert 9 month old unafraid of animals 6x Watson shows LA white rat and makes loud noise after conditioning, fears rat, similar looking things white rat = neutral stimulus -> CS loud noise = UCS fear of noise = UCR fear of rat = CR fear of similar stimulus = stimulus generalization no fear of cotton balls = stimulus discrimination "undoing conditioning" e.g. phobias - intense, irrational, excessive fears feared object/situation avoided Mary Clover Jones (1924) treated 3 year old's rabbit hobia gradually introduced rabbit and candy until rabbit no longer feared extinction not sufficient on its own, need counter-conditioning (candy) creates incompatible response Advances in classical conditioning renewal effect: tendency of CR extinguished elsewhere to return in original learned environment multiple stimuli conditioned together aware of more than intended stimulus - cannot control conditioning occurs to various aspects of environment that subject perceives so, extinction trials must be conducted in environment where CR was learned What is learned in classical conditioning? thought association was made between CS and CR actually: CS predicts UCS presenting UCS before CS or long after CS -> weak learning extinction trials teach that CS doesn't predict UCS is extinction unlearning? no: new learning old association doesn't disappear - new conflicting association develops alongside it can we understand classical conditioning without understanding biology of conditioning? behaviorists: yes can see and observe stimulus, responses don't need biological processes to know laws of learning preparedness: animals predisposed to develop CRs to some "neutral" stimuli more than others belongingness: some stimuli naturally grouped together e.g.s phobic repsonses monkeys - toy snakes v. toy flowers people - rarity of knife/gun phobias conditioned taste aversion - developing avoidance reactions to taste of food learned in single trial learning even with long delay between CS and UCS light/sound never became CS for nausea Thorndike's puzzle box how does a cat learn to pull a string? cat does different things to get out of box, accidentally finds solution in repetitions, time to escape decreases gradually law of effect: if response occurs in presence of stimulus and followed by satisfying state of affairs, the bond between stimulus and response is strengthened learning involves association between stimulus and response (S-R) learning occurs through trial and error Operant Conditioning operant chamber - Skinner Box allowing for conditioning and measurement of behavior positive reinforcement - increased probability of repsonse when presented with reward positive = adding to environment, not just nice any consequence that follows repetitive behavior is a reinforcer shaping by successive approximation: reinforcing behaviors that are progressively closer versions of target behavior chaining: linking number of interrelated behaviors to form longer series secondary reinforcement: creation of new reinforcers via classical conditioning More operant conditioning Negative reinforcement: increased probability of response occurring when removed after response (reward) press bar, electrified floor turned off punishment: decreased likelihood that subject will engage in target behavior 4 kinds of consequences to voluntary behavior: positive stimulus: 1. positive reinforcement (increased behavior) 2. positive punishment (decreased behavior) negative stimulus: 3. negative reinforcement (increased behavior) 4. negative punishment (decreased behavior) Aspects of operant conditioning acquisition: phase during which response is established extinction: trials during which response not reinforced stimulus generalization/discrimination discriminant stimulus: indicates reinforcement/punishment will follow specific behavior red and green lights in Skinner box Partial vs. continuous reinforcement partial reinforcement: behaviors reinforced intermittently slower to distinguish than continuous schedules of reinforcement: pattern reinforcement delivered by ratio: x number responses interval: x amount of time fixed ratio (FR): after certain number of responses variable ratio (VR): after certain number, amount varies trial to trial but averages out to the same as FR i.e. slots fixed interval (FI): reinforcers only after x amount of time variable interval (VI): reinforcers appear after x time, afterwards - varies Punishmenta nd learning can result in immediate change in behavior - easy solution has significant limitations for lasting learning conditions of effective punishment: follows behavior immediately consistently - no partial punishment logically - has to see connection between behavior and punishment exclusively - no mixed consequences limited in duration and intensity alternate behaviors available negative punishment used risks of punishment to change behavior effect can disappear when threat is removed overridden by competing reinforcement triggers escape behavior or counter-aggression teaches use of aggression to influence may inhibit new and better responses d/n teach alternate behavior anxious anticipation of punishment can interfere with learning classical operant response elicited response emitted (voluntarily) reward/punishment regardless of animal's behavior reward/punishment contingent on behavior learned involuntary responses learned voluntary behaviors 2-process theory: classical and operant conditioning work together to create new behaviors (like in The Office): Dwight reaching out for mint not in classical conditioning paradigm - voluntary behavior operant sound of reboot discriminant stimulus 2-process and phobias people acquire phobias via classical conditioning actively avoiding feared stimulus voluntary behavior avoidance produces negative reinforcement via anxiety reduction probability of future avoidance increases phobic response never extinguished behavioral treatment of phobias classical conditioning: counter-conditioning (relaxation) prolonged exposure (habituation) operant conditioning: reinforcement of continued exposure to maintain habituation/prevent reestablishment of fear response therapist tells patient to continue re-exposing self, rewarding self advances in operant conditioning need to understand biology behind Instinctive drift innate response tendencies interfere with learning behaviors innate response tendencies can override reinforced behaviors not all individuals learn at same rate/level some easily conditioned, some not Conditioning and cognition behaviorists thought mental processes "covert" behaviors, governed by same laws of learning as overt behaviors Wolfgang Köhler: insight learning chimps faced with new situation - stack boxes to get food didn't find answer through trial/error (like Thorndike's cats), but solved through insight therefore: had learned through mental processes, not behavior Edward Tolman: latent learning 3 groups of rats in a maze group 1: always reinforced at goal group 2: never reinforced at goal group 3: no reinforcement first 10 days, 11+ reinforced group 3 showed abrupt drop in errors from day 11 onward goes against operant conditioning paradigm - should not have beat group 1 as soon as they were reinforced so, organisms can learn without directly observable behaviors "cognitive maps" organisms can learn without reinforcement competence v. performance performance influenced by reinforcers, but d/n predict competence purposive behavior: organisms have own purposes, can behave in goal-directed ways without conditioning social learning theory: beliefs, attitudes, expectations also influence behavior reciprocal determinism: cognition, behavior, and environment all influence each other Albert Bandera: Bobo Doll experiments 1961, 63, 65 children watched adults play with toys, then played group 1 - adult physically/verbally aggressive group 2 - adult non-aggressive children who watched group 1 more aggressive observational learning: observation of models Cognition Cognitive psych  mental processes must be studied to understand human behavior and experience o memory, problem solving  50s-60s: computer model of human cognition o brain: hardware o mind: software o active info processing Cognition  Thinking o mental representation: structures in our minds  stand for something else  allows us to think of non-present things/abstract ideas  Analogical (visual) representation o imagery: visual representation of image not present  Tolman’s rats – cognitive maps  mental rotation  mental scanning of visual images  Symbolic (verbal) representation o mostly dominant form of thinking o concepts – mental grouping of people, objects, events  formal (artificial) concept: abstract concept defined by rules  natural concepts: objects and events from everyday life o natural concepts as categories – organized by what’s in common 3 models of concepts 1. defining attribute model: list of features necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category 2. prototype model: simple example represents category; if new objects are similar, grouped with category 3. exemplars model: not single prototype, but many exemplars stored in category Schemas and scripts  schema: cluster of concepts that provides framework for thinking objects, events, ideas o allows you to recognize school as school  script: kind of schema o cluster of knowledge about sequences of specific events and actions expected to occur in specific setting Organization of concepts  concept hierarchies: increased abstraction from specific to general  associative networks: chains of association between related concepts Parallel distributive processing  associations involve simultaneous activation of many concepts (nodes)  organized by similarity, hierarchy Making decisions and judgments  process of considering alternatives, choosing  dual process model of cognition o conscious (explicit) processing  effortful reasoning  rational, strategic  implementation of rules and logical steps of inference and action  in an intentional manner  relatively slow  if doesn’t follow logical rules, not sound  evolutionarily newer (frontal cortex) o deductive (logical) reasoning  from general to specific  understanding formal rules of logic  i.e. syllogism  can be logically correct but wrong conclusion if premises are false o inductive (scientific) reasoning  specific to general  i.e. hypothesis testing Problem solving  identify problem, select strategy o algorithms  can be misapplied – not for complex/subjective problems o can also:  work backwards  search for analogies to similar problems  means-end analysis: big problem into smaller ones  mental set: tendency to address new problem with strategy that worked for previous problems without considering specifics of new problem o functional fixedness: see object only having one use o self-imposed limitations: assume non-present issues Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development  Period when child’s thinking and behavior reflect a particular type of schema  Maturational process o universal o invariant sequence – rate of progression varies o specific cognitive abilities during each stage Stage one: sensorimotor  birth to 2 years  understanding of world through senses, physical exploration  key achievements: o object permanence – knowing object exists even when not directly perceivable  achieved in multiple steps  good grasp by end of 2 years o causality – one physical event reliably follows another o delayed/deferred imitation – can imitate things it saw earlier when that thing is no longer presence o self-identification Stage two: preoperational  2-7 years  use of mental representations and language  symbolic activities – one things stands for another  transductive reasoning – reasoning from appearances  egocentrism – inability to see world from others’ perspective o NOT selfishness/self-centeredness etc. but INABILITY to LITERALLY see world Stage three: concrete operational  7-11 years  mental operations and use of concepts o ability to do mental work in mind, not just picture something  achievements o conservation – despite change in appearance, amounts remain the same  opposite of transductive reasoning o reversibility – operations can be undone o decentering – overcoming egocentrism  limitations o concrete problem-solving only  not able to perform mental operations in abstract situations Formal operations  11-adult  abstract reasoning and logical operations o manipulating ideas, developing theories o deductive (logical) reasoning o inductive (scientific) reasoning  David Elkind: adolescent egocentrism o naïve idealism – overestimation of ideas o imaginary audience o personal fable – exaggerated sense of personal uniqueness and indestructibility – “it can’t happen to me” mindset Social Influences on Cognitive Development  Lev Vygotsky: Cognitive development depends upon social interactions o zone of proximal development – phase of learning in which children are ready to learn a skill and benefit from instruction o scaffolding – parents/caregivers provide initial guidance, gradually remove structure Revisions to Piaget  development is more gradual than stage-like  some achievements occur earlier o object permanence as early as 4-5 months o “naïve physics” by 4-5 months o “theory of mind” begins in infancy  idea that other people know things that I don’t know, vice versa – begins in first 2 years o perspective-taking appears by 4 years o not all reach formal operations Biopsychology Biological psychology  nervous, endocrine systems  neuroscience: interdisciplinary study of the brain Brain evolution  dramatic increase in size relative to body size o started about 3-4 million years ago o proportionally big-brained  3x weight of great apes’ brains  brain areas associated with most complex functions evolved the most o greater behavioral flexibility o adaptive advantage Human genome  46 chromosomes (23 pairs) in each cell’s nucleus  22 pairs identical, 1 pair X/Y Chromosomes  tightly coiled DNA + protein  double helix o sugar and phosphate backbone o bases in pairs (3 million in human genome) Genes  unit of hereditary transmission  segment of DNA  20.5k in humans – comparatively small number  carry info for protein synthesis o and to build/maintain cells  only 1% of DNA Genes and heredity  genotype: set of genes we inherit o blueprint o ½ from each parent – 1 base out of the pair o mutations and recombinations in genes  phenotype: observable traits o building  always some variation from genotype o how genes are expressed Natural selection  environmental pressures – changes/limitations  competition for resources – in and between species  selection of fittest phenotype  reproductive success – genotype of fittest phenotype passed onto next generation  frequency of genotype increases in next generation Contemporary evolutionary theory  humans (like all organisms) are collections of mechanisms for passing on genes – Dawkins, the Selfish Gene  “fitness” quality of genes, not humans  gene is fit if it passes onto next generation  individuals may be sacrificed o monkey who makes danger call more likely to be sacrificed, but genetic pool of others will go on  inclusive fitness: success of entire group can be influenced by individual Genetic expression in phenotype  variation between blueprint and building  dominance vs. recessiveness o alleles – different form of same gene  one dominant over another  only dominant allele expressed Epigenetics  80% of (formerly ‘junk’) DNA are switches that turn genes on and off – 4m  switches influence phenotype o can have gene for something but if switch is off, won’t show  environmental events can cause switches to turn on/off  changes in switches can be inherited o can still change back to unswitched if you inherit switched, if you go through sufficient environmental events o e.g. starved children had smaller children and small children had smaller children – small switch flipped Heritability  extent that phenotypic variation (differences in observable traits) exists due to variation in genes individuals carry  variations among individuals in a population o populations of different environments cannot be compared Behavioral genetics  twin studies – raised in same household o monozygotic (identical)  genetically identical  egg splits o dizygotic (fraternal)  not identical (about 50%)  2 eggs 2 sperm same time o characteristic correlation in both = heritability index  can be as high as .8 – very strong correlation  ideal – same prenatal and familial environments o controlling for basically entire environment  adoption studies – how adopted children resemble biological/adoptive parents o e.g. IQ strongly correlated to biological parents Molecular genetics  sequencing of genome  most of human genome identical for all  molecular geneticists look at genes with different alleles and behaviors/characteristics o very few single-gene (monogenic) transmissions o most genetic influences on behavior are polygenetic  small contributions from many genes The nervous system  central nervous system: brain + spinal cord  peripheral nervous system everything else Peripheral  autonomic: o sympathetic division – bodily arousal (activated body)  mobilized to respond to danger/stress o parasympathetic – bodily calm  regulates body for rest and digestion o work in opposition to each other – complementary o regulate largely same functions at different times Endocrine system  glands secrete hormones into system  adrenal gland: directly involved in activation of sympathetic nervous system signals Somatic nervous system  brings sensory input to brain  takes signals from brain to muscles/glands -> movement Central nervous system  spinal cord connects brain and neurons (somatic nervous system)  spinal reflexes don’t require brain o still happen when brain dead if spinal cord intact Bottom-up view of brain:  brain stem: extension of spinal cord  menulla: breathing, heart rate, blood pressure  pons o regulates sleep cycles o connects cerebellum  cerebellum o motor control o balance, coordination  reticular formation o attention and alertness o connected to pons (sleep regulation) Midbrain  tectum: orientation  tegmentum: movement and arousal  substantia nigra: voluntary movement Forebrain  limbic system: emotional center of brain o networked with autonomic/endocrine system o emotions, pain/pleasure o hypothalamus: boss of endocrine  regulates pituitary, which regulates rest  appetites, emotions o amygdala: particularly fear/aggression  emotional memory o hippocampus: emotion experience  formation of long-term memories  easier to remember emotional events  sub-cortical structures o thalamus: conduit between information from nervous system and cortex, cortex to motor o basal ganglia: voluntary control o cingulate gyrus: attention and cognitive control  cerebrum: topmost layer o cortex o corpus collosum: bundle of nerves that bridges 2 sides of brain Cortex  2 spheres, 4 lobes each  Frontal lobe o prefrontal cortex: language, memory, executive (decision-making) o motor cortex  signals to muscles  via somatic system o primary gustatory: taste o mirror neurons  mimicry, empathy  directly evolved with empathetic ability  Parietal lobes o space perception – where body is located o L: speech location o R: object location o somatosensory cortex: touch, temperature, pain  Occipital lobes o visual cortex  Temporal lobes o auditory cortex  hearing, language comprehension  autobiographical memories o primary olfactory cortex The cooperative brain  all areas of brain work together  no process that doesn’t involve multiple parts of the brain  most of cortex not localized, association cortex o works with others in all 4 lobes  still localization of function though Cerebral dominance  brain function localized by hemisphere  Left o processing style: analytic, sequential, linear o positive commands o spontaneous production of language  speech/writing o memory words, numbers o understanding speech, writing  Right o processing style: holistic, emotional, spatial o negative commands o shapes, music o facial recognition  dominance =/= exclusivity o not a L or R brained person Language and the brain  language processing coordinated across hemispheres  L: 2 areas o Broca – speech production o Wernicke’s – speech comprehension  aphasia: impairment of production/comprehension of speech o caused by brain damage o commonly by stroke  Broca’s aphasia: damage to Broca’s area o non-fluent speech o short phrases produced with effort o meaningful speech, can still comprehend  Wernicke’s aphasia: damage to Wernicke’s area o fluent speech o words/sentences not intelligible o not understanding speech, even own words  if relearn lost skill, not clean slate – substitution Split-brain patients  epilepsy patients might have corpus collosum severed to confine epilepsy to one hemisphere o successful  duality of consciousness – separate consciousness in hemispheres Issues with normal brain operations  blind o cannot register visual information at all o caused by  damage to optic nerve  damage to visual cortex  blindsight o above-chance visual performance of cortically blind individuals with damage to primary visual cortex, not secondary o secondary processing areas can use visual information to direct behavior o not consciously aware of what’s going on or any conscious experience of ‘seeing’  cross-sensory experiences o synesthesia  communication between brain areas that are close to each other but process different sensations  grapheme-color synesthesia (2 = red), music-color synesthesia  what if the hemispheres are split? o split-brain patients: individuals who have had corpus callosum surgically severed o dual-brain consciousness o each hemisphere independently controls one side of the body  left hemisphere right side of body, etc. Neurons  brain cells vary, but are all neurons o nerve cells o also in nervous system o send signals by conducting impulses through the nervous system through regulated “firing”  “fire” to communicate information  structure of neuron o primary component: dendrites  receiving portion of neuron o cell body: soma  contains cell’s DNA  determines “firing” o axon  sending portion of neuron Axon  resting potential o at rest, neuron is polarized  inside of membrane more negatively charged than outside  ions – electrically charged chemicals  more negative ions than positive ions  action potential o when neuron begins to fire o voltage gated channels in membrane open o results in depolarization  charge between inside and outside will even out  positive ions (Na+) flow into cell quickly, potassium (K+) flows out slowly  charge neutralizes slowly, then becomes briefly positive o channels close once cell is slightly positively charged  sodium pumped back out so the cell becomes slightly negative again o begins at cell body, moves down axon in rapid series/flow of action potentials of depolarization from one end of the axon to the other o absolute refractory period: portion of membrane that was just depolarized cannot be polarized again o all-or-none process  once action potential starts at one end, will always go down to the end o neurons give brains binary signaling capacity: yes/no, on/off Glia  glial cells: support cells of the nervous system  form myelin sheath – covers many (not all) axons o make neural firing more efficient  node (gaps in sheath) speed nerve impulses  action potential goes from node to node o help form new synapses o respond to injury to neural cells  can occasionally help repair damage to neurons Chemical neurotransmission  when action potential reaches end of axon, cannot directly connect to end o gap between axon terminal and new dendrite o uses chemical process  axon terminal vesicles contain neurotransmitters  neurotransmission: release of NT from axon terminal  bind to receptor site on receiving cell dendrite  receiving of chemicals alters charge on next cell – begins action potential in next cell o NTs stopped from sending messages  can be broken down by enzymes – used for new NTs  or reuptake into axon terminal Neurotransmitters  keys that fit into specific locks  can be in two broad categories o excitatory: fire o inhibitory: don’t fire  reception of different NTs from different cells into new cell o neural membrane of receiving cell moves a little in one direction whenever it receives a signal – not enough for synapse to fire o need enough NTs to build up to actually fire  affect everything depending on where in nervous system they’re found Neural development  brain development begins 3 weeks after conception o neurogenesis: creation of neurons  continues into adulthood in a few areas of the brain (e.g. hippocampus) o most of neurons we develop are present by 12 weeks after conception  brain development continues through early adulthood o growth of dendrites/axons o creation of new synapses  over childhood and into adulthood, simple neurons make new connections o pruning of synapses  connections between dendrites and axons that don’t do anything will die off o myelination: creation of myelin  process of neural cells becoming myelinated continues into childhood Neural plasticity  brain’s ability to change with experience  neuron growth and creation of new synapses is influenced by the environment o born with neurons/neural connections, but how we establish new connections depends almost completely on experiences we have o stimulation in environment leads to increased neurobranching and more complex connections o environment and repetition also improve performance of synapses  brain areas differ in plasticity o hippocampus highly plastic  can form new connections and generate new neurons o sensory areas can be repurposed  plasticity decreases with age o decline in new learning, memory  efforts to increase adult neural plasticity o stimulating axon growth o stem cell implantation  cells with potential to become a variety of specialized cells o drugs to boost specific neurotransmitter levels relating to attention, etc. Memory What is memory?  information processing system building on core metaphor of cognitive psych revolution – brains like hardware, minds like software  memory allows to store and retrieve info  not a system for recording information o d/n record and then look back for accurate picture of previous experiences  memory is parsimonious o we store only as much as we need to accomplish our daily purposes o therefore we don’t store every detail of the penny because we only need to know copper/Lincoln for everyday memory functionality regarding pennies  memory illusion o false but convincing memory o in most cases, never find out that our memory is illusionary  memory is reconstructive o take in info (not everything), then change what we take in  when we retrieve it, further changes what took place  makes memory an interpretive system o can result in memory errors o like archaeology – use what we have and fill in gaps Three systems model of memory  Atkinson & Shiffrin model  each of 3 has different span o varies in amount of information they can hold  different durations o varies in how long system can hold info First: sensory memory  large span enters through the senses  perceptual info stored very briefly unless passed to short-term memory o most will never be remembered again  each sense has its own form of sensory memory o iconic (visual) sensory memory  lasts less than 1 second  except in cases of eidetic imagery (photographic memory) o echoic (auditory)  lasts several seconds Second: working (short-term) memory  mental workspace – what we are consciously aware of, able to think about and work with in our minds  info only stays in working memory for brief period o less than 30 seconds o still longer than sensory memory  limited capacity (span) o 7 +/- 2 pieces of info (Miller) categorizes working memory for majority of people o can be fewer than 5 or more than 9, but for most 7 +/- 2 is the limit Limits of working memory  selective attention o focus awareness on some aspects of environment, ignore others o filter out much of incoming info, focus only on info that matters  using limited cognitive resources for best purpose o inattentional blindness  focusing on one aspect of the environment makes us apt to miss changes (even large ones) in background aspects of environment o cocktail party effect  filtering out then refocusing on what was background info when it is personally relevant  hearing own name in a background conversation you weren’t listening to  we think we weren’t listening, but a part of the mind was monitoring background conversation o perceptual load model  ability to filter out background info varies with how much of our attentional capacity is being demanded by object we’re focusing on  during exam, little noises and small distractions get attention  more demand we put on cognitive apparatuses, the less they can do in other respects i.e. filtering out background noise  shifting attention (multi-tasking) o rapid switching of attention from one task to another  not paying attention to multiple things at once o compensation for limited ability o reduces performance on the primary task attempted  compromises learning by interfering with encoding info (one of primary tasks of memory)  more info gets dropped – not stored/entered into memory Aiding working memory  chunking o organizing info into meaningful groupings to extend span of STM  rehearsal o repeating info to extend duration o maintenance rehearsal  repeating stimuli in the original form o elaborative rehearsal  linking stimuli in a meaningful way  connecting new info to existing info  superior in moving info into LTM Long term memory  permanent store of info  very large capacity (span) o no real limit  info may endure for decades o “permastore”  organized according to meaning o “sweet” connected in a network of meanings with all the words in the list Types of long term memory Explicit (declarative) memory  accessible to conscious awareness, recalled intentionally o semantic memory  knowledge of general info, meaning of words, concepts o episodic memory  knowledge of events in our lives (“episodes”)  tends to be stored orally Long term memory’s 4 tasks 1) Encoding  info needs to be encoded in a way that memory can use  selection – which info gets encoded o based on relevance etc.  identification – know what it is that we’re seeing/feeling  labeling – needs category  elaboration  levels of processing o shallow – structural – how info appears o phonemic – storing sounds o deep – semantic – level of meaning o higher level: higher probability of recall 2) Consolidation  some see as separate task, some group with storage process  process by which encoded info consolidated so it can be stored over long term  aided by sleep 3) Storage  retention of encoded material over time  hierarchies, schemas, associative networks – all how LTM stores info to be used at a later time 4) Retrieval  location, recovery, reconstruction of stored info  when bring LTM into STM, recreate event from whatever was stored  depends on how memories were encoded (1) and how they are cued  recognition o identifying previously remembered info from array of options (i.e. MC) o options serve as retrieval cues  recall o reproducing previously presented info o requires cues other than info itself  principle of encoding specificity o most likely to be able to retrieve/recall info when cues in environment or selves that match original info and serve as cues to recall o context-dependent learning  better able to retrieve info when in situation/context in which info was originally learned o state-dependent learning  we remember more easily when in same internal state as we were when we learned it  i.e. mood-congruent memory  happy mood likely to trigger happy memories  depression perpetuates itself through biased retrieval of depressing memories Biology of memory  most of what we know about memory comes from Patient H.M. o 1953 surgery to contain epileptic seizures o lost hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, some anterolateral temporal cortex  at the time, didn’t know what any of these structures did o could not form new declarative (explicit) memories  anything that happened to him from that point forward left his memory shortly after it happened o lost recent declarative memory o working and procedural (implicit) memory left intact Neurobiology of remembering  sensory memory o processed initially in dedicated areas of cortex  working memory o primarily involves prefrontal cortex  long-term memory o different types encoded/stored in different parts of brain o explicit memory: cortex  episodic: hippocampus, amygdala  semantic: parahippocampal cortex, entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex  if disengaged, no amygdala – no LT emotional memory  memory and emotion o amygdala/hippocampus involved in emotion and episodic memory formation  therefore, emotions help encode and retrieve memories  emotional memories easier to recall than factual ones  flashbulb memories: vivid, but not especially accurate  implicit memory o processed/stored in striatum, cerebellum, amygdala, cortex o procedural memory  not hippocampus-dependent  without hippocampus, can learn new skills without remembering how you learned them  hormones and memory o norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol  sympathetic/physiological arousal  activate amygdala  affect memory formation – when hormone levels are higher, more likely to remember event occurring than when they’re lower o cortisol – stress hormone  cortisol levels rise and remain high for duration of stressful period  affects retrieval via dose-response curve – small amount of stress helps retrieve info better, but after a certain point recall drops sharply o estrogen  maintains synapses – when estrogen levels drop, synapses deteriorate/function less effectively  women lose at menopause, fluctuate during menstrual cycle  testosterone converted to estrogen in the brain, operates same
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