INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCH COMPLETE NOTES [Part 3] - I got a 4.0 in this course!

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University of Pittsburgh
PSY 0105

9/4 The Self and Social Comparison Self­Concept Self-Schemas: beliefs about the self that organize and guide processing (ex. We may perceive ourselves as athletic, smart, or attractive) Self-Concept: all self-schemas put together; how we think of ourselves Development of Self-Concept • Roles we play (student, sister, girlfriend) • Social identities • Comparisons we make with others (deals with how we feel about ourselves) • Successfulness or failure • How others judge us • Surrounding culture Types of Self-Concepts Independent: defining oneself based on internal thoughts and feelings; male, Western  Values initiative, achievement, leadership, autonomy, pleasure, financial security, variety Interdependent: defining oneself based on one’s identity in relation to others; female, Eastern  Depends on Groups, belongingness, expertise, order, duty, security, less expression of anger, more expression of shame and anxiety Collective: defining oneself through more formal groups; male (ex. a company) Relational: defining oneself through less organized groups; female (ex. family) Self-Complexity: how interrelated a person’s schemas are • Basically how well you separate the different parts of yourself 9/4 • Higher complexity means that your schemas are more separate • Lower complexity means that they are more interrelated; failure in one area of your life could lead to failure in other parts Social Identity Theory Social Identity: how you identify with the groups that you belong to Components: Categorization: we group people together based on looks, friends, where they are, etc. Identification: we put ourselves in a group and associate with them’ helps to bolster self-esteem Comparison: compare our group to others, tend to make ours look more favorable Psychological Distinctiveness: we desire uniqueness in our group Effects Ingroup Bias: tendency to view our own group as better, punish members of other groups more harshly Black Sheep Effect: we tend to punish single members of our ingroup more harshly because they are held to a higher standard Identity Interference: when two identities are in conflict (ex. parent and employee) Creating a Self­Concept Introspection • Mostly unconscious (weakness because it can’t be studied) • Understanding ourselves through self-evaluation Social Comparison to Ourselves • Past self, dreaded possible self, desired potential self • Regulatory Focus o Promotion Focusdo the best they can, very eager (want to achieve desired self) 9/4 o Prevention Focusnon-loss, avoid failure (avoid dreaded self) Social Comparison to Others • Self-Enhancement (downward comparison) o Ex. cancer patients comparing themselves to someone who they perceive to have it worse than them • Accuracy (similar) o Ex. we compare to others like us when we take exams • Goal of Aspirations (upward comparison) o Ex. comparing to famous role models Self-Evaluation Maintenance Model (SEM) • We want to maintain a positive view of ourselves • Process o Distance ourselves from people who do better on valued dimensions o Move closer to those who do worse on valued dimensions • Ex. couples whose valued dimensions differ are usually better together because they don’t compete Self­Awareness • We people focus on themselves they compare their behavior to internal standards • Subjective: organism’s ability to recognize itself as an object separate from other things in the environment • Objective: organism’s capacity to be the object of its own attention • Symbolic: the human capacity to form an abstract representation of self through language • Recognition o Implies self-concept 9/4 o Experiment: mark child’s forehead with a dot, see if they touch the dot on the mirror or on his/herself (most 2 yr. olds can pass this test) • Social Environments o T
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