INTRODUCTION TO SOCIAL PSYCH COMPLETE NOTES [Part 5] - I got a 4.0 in this course!

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University of Pittsburgh
PSY 0105

10/9 Attraction and Relationships Relationships • Why we need others—we have a genetic predisposition to have close relationshipsbonds are adaptive o Example: Romania  Women were required to have 5 kids even though families were very poor  As a result, orphanages overflowed with kids  Poor treatment (28 caretakers for 600 kids)  Kids were not potty trained at the proper age, had GI problems as a result of poor diets, had no supervision and not enough clothing, shared cots  Lacked social bonds, had autistic behaviors, and had emotional problems o Happiness  We are programmed to be happy when we bond with others o Social Support  Emotional, material, or informational assistance provided by other people o Social Capital  Assets that can be drawn from one’s network or personal relationships  Involves everyone you are connected with  Ex. your friend knows someone who can fix your car o Need for Affiliation  Basic motive to seek and maintain interpersonal relationships  We are driven to sustain relationships Social Exclusion • Social rejection of an individual by an entire group of people 10/9 o OstracismPainful (even activates the same areas in the brain that physical pain does) o After pain, our need to belong, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence are affected  Experiment: • Confederates playing ball with participant in the waiting room • Stopped passing the ball to the participant, causing him/her to feel ostracized • Elicits powerful effect in the participant o Other effects:  We pay attention to and remember more information about other people  We are more tuned into emotional inconsistencies (mixed emotions)  Mimicry of other people  More likely to conform to social norms  Work harder  More cooperative  Express liking for other group members  If you continue to get ostracized: • Aggression • Self-ostracism • Depression, suicide, eating disorders Needing Others • When we need others… 10/9 o Uncertainty o Threat  Harlow’s Monkeys • When a threatening object appeared, they sought comfort from their cloth mom rather than the wire one that fed them  Misery loves company—we want to bond with others who feel the same way we do o Terror Management  Humans are aware of the inevitability of death • This terrifies/paralyzes us • Having culture diminishes this fear by providing us with meaning and organization • Compliance to norms makes us feel secure  Cultural Worldview: the way a culture views the world (ex. for us, it includes the ideas of democracy, freedom, justice, and hard work) • We cling to this worldview to make ourselves feel more secure • Religion also helps (ex. Christians believe that they can gain immortality by following Jesus) • This creates an avenue toward immortality • Another’s belief is a threat to immortality (they believe something different than you do) o Experiment: after being shown a picture of 9/11, Americans became more prejudicedreflects the idea that rejecting other peoples’ worldview makes us feel better about the concept of death o Experiment: people filled out surveys about worldviews in front of either a flower shop or a morgue’ those in front of the morgue were more prejudiced because of the reminder of death  This doesn’t make evolutionary sense 10/9 Who we want to be with • Similarity o Mutual liking; we like people who are similar to us (only a few cases in which opposites truly attract—flings) o Validation; people who validate our opinions and beliefs o Positive biases; because we have positive biases about ourselves o Attitudes; holds across all generations and cultures • Propinquity (people close in proximity) o Convenience; it is easier to be with people who are close by  In dorms, it was found that people were more often friends with their closer neighbors o Likelihood; if you live in the same city as someone, you are more likely to see them more frequently • Familiar o Mere Exposure Effect (Moreland and Beach, 1992)  The more exposure you have to something, the more you like it  This is because it is safe and you know what it does  This doesn’t work if the first experience was very bad or very strong  Experiment: stranger appeared in class one or several times, the more they came the more highly they were rated by the class o Wariness; we have adapted to be more wary of stimuli that are ambiguous • Affect Centered Model of Attraction: theory in which attraction is assumed to be based on positive and negative emotions • Heider’s Balance Theory: formulations that specify the relationships among (1) an individual’s liking for another person, (2) his or her attitude about a given topic, and (3) the other person’s attitude about the same topic o Balance=liking, positive emotions 10/9 Exchange in Relationships • Social Exchange Theory: people’s feelings about a relationship depend on: o Perceptions of the rewards o The kind of relationship that they think they deserve o The chances of having a relationship with someone else **calculated as if it is a math problem • Equity Theory: we are happiest in relationships in which the rewards and costs experiences and the contributions made by both parties are roughly equal—we are happiest when things are fair Types of Relationships • Communal Relationships: relationships in which people’s primary concern is being responsive to the other person’s needs o Ex. mother/child relationship; some romantic relationships • Exchange Relationships: relationships governed by the need for equity o Communal Sharing: members of a group share a pool of resources, taking when they are in need and giving when others are in need  Ex. a family pools money, you take some out to get dinner o Authority Ranking: goods are divided according to a person’s status in the group  Ex. president makes more money than the VP o Equality Matching: each person gets the same as others o Market pricing: everyone gets out in proportion to what they put in  Ex. you work 80 hours and get double the money that someone got for working 40 hours • Friendship o Enjoyment, respect, acceptance, trust, confiding, understanding, spontaneity o More use of we/us pronouns 10/9 o Less likely to lie unless it enhances the other person o Gender Differences  Males • Hierarchical • More respect among friends  Females • More affectionate and attentive • Closer relationships • More self-disclosure • More emotional support  As a result, both genders prefer female friends • Siblings o Only children are less liked, more aggressive and victimized o People who have siblings learn more about interpersonal relationships o Predictor of closeness: happily married parents and a warm relationship with parents o Siblings drift apart temporarily in young adulthood and get closer again as they get older • Loneliness o Cycle: lonelinessavoidanceself-defeating thoughtsdepressionpoor interpersonal behavioravoidance of subjectloneliness o Causes  Genetics  Attachment style  Failure to develop social skills o Effects 10/9  Lower immune responses  Increased thoughts of suicide  Increased risk of cancer, heart attacks  Recurrent headaches o Solutions  Social skills training  Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
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