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BIOL 56200 Midterm: 2017 Study Guide Exam 4

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 56200

Exam 4 – Study Guide 1) be able to articulate the learning-performance distinction and how it applies to scientists wanting to study the neural basis of learning and/or memory. • Learning: Experience changes behavior. • Performance: Exhibited Performance • Memory: Retention of learned behavior. • Observed changes in behavior cannot be automatically attribute to learning or memory • Necessary to rule out component processes • This is the learning-performance distinction • Must show that the brain manipulation in a given experiment influenced behavior selectively influencing the unobservable memory component and not some other component process • Not easy to identify what has been learned or taught • Performance is affected by o Age o Circadian rhythm o Gender o Wellness o Satiety o motivation o temperature learning o motor skills o medication 2) what is the difference between non-associative learning and associative learning and give an example of each. • Associative o Classical conditioning ▪ Pavlovian→ classical conditioning: learning procedure in which associations between a neutral and an unconditioned stimulus are made • Conditioned stimulus: neutral→ tone or light (bell) • Unconditioned stimulus: Stimulus that naturally results in response, i.e. food, electrical shock • Conditioned response: learned response to a conditioned stimulus, i.e. bell + salivation paired • Unconditioned response: unlearned or REFLEXIVE response to unconditioned stimulus i.e. bell + meat + salivation o Contiguity (pairing): Closer pairing results in more learning o Contingency (predictability): routing conditioning on a regular schedule results in better retention o • nonassociative o Habituation ▪ You need more input to get action potential ▪ decreased response to a repeated presentation of the same stimulus ▪ ex) songbird • Response decreases as the amount of stimuli stays constant, so male bird noise causes them to freeze, however the longer they hear it the less they freeze when they hear it o Sensitization ▪ The action potential is broadened ▪ increased response to a stimulus as a result of a different stimulus (sensitization stimulus ) 3) know the difference between classical conditioning and instrumental learning • Operant o reward / punishment o Consequences and behavior ▪ Positive and negative reinforcement/punishment • Classical conditioning o Pavlov’s dogs 4) In terms of neural mechanisms: A. Aplysia work: for each of the types of learning studied in Aplysia, know how the experiment was done, what behavior change was measured and what neural mechanisms have been shown to mediate the learned change in behavior. This includes the locus of change, the observed physiological change and the associated cellular mechanisms, • Habituation: prodding siphon leads to initial strong reaction which steadily decreases with continued prodding, decrease in glutaminergic receptors o Behavior: mild tactile stimulations of gills or siphon causes withdrawal of the gill. Repeated stimulation leads to gill • Sensitization: prodding siphon paired with electrical shock, initial strong response, repeated tail shocks with prodding lead to prolonged withdrawal o Sensitization of the gill withdrawal response produced by stimulating the tail --The sensitizing stimulus at the
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