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Final

AT 115 Study Guide - Final Guide: Extensor Hallucis Longus Muscle, Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine, Anterior Superior Iliac Spine


Department
Athletic Training
Course Code
AT 115
Professor
Stephan Straub
Study Guide
Final

Page:
of 6
Kinesiology Final Exam Guide:
Foundations of Kinesiology
Plane: Description of plane: Axis of Rotation: Common movements:
sagittal Divides body into
left/right halves
Frontal Flexion/Extension
Frontal Divides body into
anterior/posterior
Sagittal Abduction/Adduction
Transverse Divides the body into
superior/inferior
Vertical Internal/External
Rotation
Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Sesamoid Bones
Long cylindrical
shaft with wide
protruding ends
Small cube
shaped/shock
absorption
Provide protection Irregular
shaped/provide
various purposes
Embedded in
tendon/provide
protection/
mech.advantage
Ex. Femur, ulna,
radius
Ex. Talus, carpals,
etc
Ex. Scapula,
sternum
Ex. Sphenoid,
vertebra
Ex. Patella anterior,
sesamoid bone
Synarthrodial Joint Ampiarthrodial Joint Diarthrodial Joint
Immovable Joints Slightly Movable Joints Freely Moveable Joints
Suture (cranial)
Gomphosis (teeth sockets)
Syndesmosis (tibiofib joint)
Symphysis (pubic symphysis)
Synchondrosis (ribs+sternum)
Ginglymus (hinge)
Trochoidal (pivot/screw)
Condyloidal (ovoid b+s)
Arthrodial (gliding)
Enarthrodial (B+S)
Sellar (saddle)
Types of Movements:
Abduction/Adduction Flexion/Extension External/ Internal Rotation
Pronation/Supination dorsi/plantar flexion Inversion/Eversion
Circumduction Depression/Elevation H-abduction/ H-adduction
Accessory Motions:
Roll (rocking motion)knee extension
Gliding (slide/translations)wrist flexion/extension
Spin (spinning on axisradioulnar rotation
Parallel Fiber Arrangement: Pennate Fiber Arrangement:
Flat: abdominals Unipennate (one side)
Fusiform: biceps brachii Bipennate (Both Sides)
Strap: Sartorius Multipennate (several tendon fibers)
Radiate: trapezius
Sphincter: orbicularis oris
Muscle Tissue Properties: Types of Muscle Contraction
Irritability/excitability Eccentric: Controls Motion
Contractility Concentric: Causes Motion
Extensibility Isometric: Prevents Motion
Elasticity
exercise = provide targeted muscles resistance and stabilize Roles of Muscles:
actually act out motions to verify accuracy during exam Agonists: primary movers
Antagonists: resist agonist movement
Synergist: assist in agonist movement
Force Couples: two opposite forces in
opposite directionsrotation
1
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Analyzing Motions/Muscles:
1. Define the motion
2. Who/what causes the motion
3. What is your role in the activity: create, control, or prevent motion?
4. What is the muscle group responsible for motion?eccentric, concentric, isometric
5. Identify the actual muscles responsible for motion
6. Position: if muscles in short position, you turn them off and can isolate specifics
BE AWARE OF PLANAR PAIRS
Lever Systems in the Body:
Biomechanics: the study of mechanics as it relates to functional and anatomical analysis of biological
systems
Function of machines: balance multiple forces, enhance a force to overcome a resistance easier, enhance
the ROM and speed of a movement, and to alter the resulting direction of the applied force.
o
Types of Lever Systems in the Body:
Class: Illustration: Arrangement
:
Relation to
Axis:
Mechanical
Advantage:
Direction of
force vs.
resistence:
Examples:
First Class: F—A—R Balance=axis
mid
S/R= axis
near force
Force M=
axis near R
Balance=1
S/R= less
than 1
Force M=
greater than
1
Applied in
the same
direction.
Triceps brachii
extending the
elbow
Second
Class:
A—R—F Axis always
near
resistance
Always
greater than
1
Resistance
and force in
opposition
Gastrocnemius
and soleus
plantar flexion
Third Class: A—F—R Axis is always
near the
force
Always less
than 1
Force and
resistance in
opposition
Biceps brachii
and brachialis
flexing the
elbow.
Foot Joints/Muscles:
Ankle dorsiflexion: Inversion: Ankle plantarflexion:
tibialis anterior tibialis anterior/posterior gastrocnemius
extensor digitorim longus flexor digitorim/hallucis longus peroneus longus/brevis
peroneus (fibularis) tertius soleus
extensor hallucis longus plantarus
Eversion: Toe Flexors: Toe Extensors:
peroneus brevis flexor hallucis longus extensor digit. longus
peroneus tertius flexor digitorim longus extensor hallucis longus
Knee Joints/Muscles:
Flexors: Extensors: Internal Rotation:
biceps femoris rectus femoris popliteus
2
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popliteus vastus medialus semimembranosus
semimembranosus vastus lateralus semitendinosus
semitendinosus
Important Ligaments: Varus/Valgus Stresses:
MCL (prevents medial tibia movement) valgus: lateral stress
ACL (prevents forward tibial movement) varus: medial stress
LCL (prevents lateral tiabial movement
PCL (prevents posterior tibial movement)
Hip Joints/Muscles:
Flexors: Extensors: Adductors:
iliopsoas semimembranosus adductor magnus
rectus femoris semitendinosus adductor brevis
sartorius biceps femoris adductor longus
pectineus gluteus maximus gracilius
Abductors: Internal rotation: External Rotation:
gluteus medius gluteus minimus iliopsoas
gluteus minimus gluteus medius gluteus maximus
external rotators TFL sartorius
TFL semitendinosus external rotators (P)
semimembranosus
Anterior Pelvis Tilt: Posterior Pelvis Tilt:
iliopsoas gluteus maximus
rectus femoris biceps femoris
Sartorius semimembranosus
TFL semitendinosus
Important Bony Landmarks/Attachment Sites:
anterior superior iliac spine linea aspera
anterior inferior iliac spine iliofemoral/ischiofemoral/pubofemoral ligament
greater/lesser trochanter lateral/medial malleolus
inferior/superior pubic ramus calcaneofibular/anterior+posterior talofibular/deltoid
ligaments
lateral/medial epicondyle inferior/superior retinaculum
tibial tuberosity pes anserine
gerdy’s tubercle teres ligament
Labrum (makes the joint deeper/stability of hip)
Shoulder Girdle Muscles: Scapular Thoracic
Protraction: Retraction:
Serratus Anterior Trap 3
Pectoralis Minor Rhomboid
Upward Rotation: Downward Rotation:
Trap 4 Rhomboid
Trap 2 Pectoralis minor
Serratus Anterior
(arm going front) (arm going back)
Elevation: Depression:
Trap 1 Trap 4
Trap 2 Pectoralis Minor
Levator Scapulae (imp. In old/disabled)
3
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