CJ 290 Final: PS101 FINAL REVIEW

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Criminal Justice
CJ 290
Stephan Mc Guinn

STUDYGUIDEINTROTOPSYCH EXAM #3SPRING2017 (FINAL) CHAPTER 9 INSTINCTS –NATURE EVOLUTIONARYAPPROACH - DARWIN • Instinct: An innate (unlearned) biologicalpattern ofbehavior that isassumed to be universal throughouta species. • Ethology: Study ofanimalbehavior(has alsodescribed motivation from an evolutionary perspective –natural behavioralsoscientiststo study instincts) • In early psych, the evolutionary approach emphasized the role ofinstincts inmotivation. • Evolutionary psych’sbelieve the motivationsforsex, aggression,achievementandotherbehaviors are rooted inevolutionary past. o Evolutionary approachesemphasize the passingof genes. o Humanbehavior is toocomplex toexplainon the basis ofinstinct. CULTURE ANDFAMILYARE MORE NURTURE • Ones culture and the people they are surrounded with fallinto the Nurture category (learned behaviorsand traits) asthese are not inherently genetic andbehaviors and traits are learned by observation ratherthanan immediate knowledge ofknowing how todosomething(Shaking hands – children don’t justknow this – they OBSERVE people doingit and LEARN) NATURE VIA NURTURE (THE TWOACTINGTOGETHER) • Nature: traitsand/orcharacteristics inherited or genetic inorigin • Nurture: traits/qualities learnedby organismsasthey grow • Nature VIA Nurture: how the interactionbetween the genes andthe environment affecthuman developmenttogether –bothinfluencing –rather than it havingtob one or the other DRIVEREDUCTION - WESEEK HOMEOSTASIS, (EQUILIBRIUM), REGRESSION TO THEMEAN • Need: deprivationthat energizes the drive toeliminate or reduce the deprivation • Drive: arousedstate that occursbecause of aphysiologicalneed (like apsychologicalitch) • Drive is psychological while need isphysiological • Motivation: force thatmoves people tobehave, think and feel the way they do • Drive reduction theory explainsthatas adrive becomes stronger,we are more motivated to reduce it toreach the goalof homeostasis STUDYGUIDEINTROTOPSYCH EXAM #3SPRING2017 (FINAL) • Homeostasis: bodys tendency tomaintainanequilibriumorsteady state (sugar, temperature, oxygenation etc) • Many psychologists believe drive-reductiontheory doesn’tprovide acomprehensive framework for understandingmotivationbecause people behave inwaysthat may increase rather thanreduce the drive (ie –dietingand skipping ameal) MASLOW’S THEORY PYRAMIDS • AbrahamMaslow: Humanistic Theorist –1954& 1971 • Heirarchy ofneeds– theory thathumanneeds must be satisfiedinthe followingsequence: (from bottomto top) – SEEIMAGEBELOW • SelfActualization: motivation todevelopones full potentialas ahumanbeing – highestand most elusive ofMaslow’s Proposed Needs SELF-DETERMINATION • EdwardDeci andRichard Ryan (2000)– Humanistic Theoriststhatdeveloped a theory ofmotivation thatemphasizesparticularkindsofneedsas factorsinoptimal human functioning(Buildingfrom Maslows Theory –above) • SelfDetermination: theory assertingthatallhumanshave three basic, innate organismic needs: Competence, relatednessandautonomy o Think: aplant that needswater, soiland sunlight. o Fromthe self-determinationperspective, these needsdon’tarise from deficits. It is not a drive reduction theory. These needsconcernpersonal growth notfilling deficiencies • Competence: met when we feelwe are able to bringabout desiredoutcomes o Motivation for thisinvolve: self efficacy and mastery STUDYGUIDEINTROTOPSYCH EXAM #3SPRING2017 (FINAL) o Ie) inrealms ofachievement – winning arace orgame • Relatedness: the needtoengage inwarm relations with other people o Many psychologists believe this the strongesthumanmotivator o Reflected in the importance of parentsnurturing their childrensdevelopment, sharing secretswith friends, etc • Autonomy: sense thatwe are incontrolofourown life o Ie) olderpeople feelmore autonomous thanyoungerpeople when paying taxes,voting, and tipping • Research suggeststhese three pillars are strongly related to wellbeing INTRINSIC • Intrinsic: inside you –doing something tobetter yourself o Motivation basedoninternalfactors such as organismic needs aswellas curiosity, challenge andfun ▪ Organismic Needs– see self- determination above –Competence, relatedness, autonomy • ENGAGINGIN BEHAVIOR BECAUSEWEENJOY IT –FORUS EXTRINSIC • Extrinsic: external reward o Motivation thatinvolvesexternalincentivessuch asrewardsandpunishments • ENGAGINGIN BEHAVIOR FORAREWARDORPAYOFF SELF-REGULATION • Self- regulation: processby which anorganismeffortfully controls itsbehaviorin orderto pursue importantobjectives(Schunk & Zimmerman – 2013) o Akey aspectof this is getting feedback about whatwe are doinginourgoalpursuits o Role of mood means we cannot be happy allofthe time • PoorSelfregulation associates are: o Procrastination: intentionally puttingoffactionson agoal o Impulsivity: actingondirectcue rather thanplanningoutonesactionsandstepstowarda goal EMOTIONS STUDYGUIDEINTROTOPSYCH EXAM #3SPRING2017 (FINAL) • Emotion: feelingor affectthat can involve: o Physiologicalarousal (such as afastheartbeat), o Conscious experience (thinking about being in love with someone), o Behavioralexpression (a smile orgrimace) • Closely linkedwithmotivation. o We can feelhappy orsaddepending onhow eventsinfluence the likelihoodofus getting thingswe like in life • Biological o Arousal: ▪ Autonomic nervoussystem takesmessagesto and from the body’s internalorgans, monitoring breathing, heart rate and digestion. • Divided into 2parts o Sympathetic NervousSystem: involvedin AROUSAL ▪ Blood Flow tobrain increases ▪ Pupilsdialiate ▪ Heartbeat is faster ▪ Breathingrate isfaster ▪ Adrenal glandactivity increases –releasedstress hormones ▪ Digestive activity decreases o Parasympathetic: involved in CALMING ▪ OPPOSITE OFSYMPATHETIC TWO FACTOR THEORY –PHYSIOLOGICALANDCOGNITIVE o TwoFactorTheory ofEmotion: SchatcherandSingers(1962) theory thatemotionis determined by twofactors: ▪ PhysiologicalArousal: Biological(SEEABOVE) ▪ Cognitive Labeling: Interpretationofexternal cuesand labelingthem asanemotion ▪ Ie) someone complimentsyouandyou feel good  youcall that“happy” FACIAL FEEDBACK THEORY o FacialFeedback hypothesis: idea that facialexpressionscan influence emotions aswellas reflect them STUDYGUIDEINTROTOPSYCH EXAM #3SPRING2017 (FINAL) ▪ Facialmuscles sendsignals to the brainthat helpus to recognize the emotion we are expressing ▪ We feelhappier whenme smile andsadderwhen we frown Chapter 10 FREUD • Psychoanalysis: asystem ofpsychologicaltheory and therapy that aimsto treat mentaldisordersby investigatingthe interactionof consciousand unconscious elementsinthe mind andbringing repressed fears andconflictsintothe consciousmindby techniques such asdream interpretationand free association • Psychoanalytic: relatingto the above ^^ • FreudianTheory: o Believed sex wasanything that provided organpleasure o Personality development, which argued thatpersonality isformed throughconflictsamong three fundamentalstructures of the humanmind, they are: ▪ Id– • Primitive and instinctive componentofpersonality –Newborn childs personality • Itconsists ofall the inherited componentsofpersonality presentat birth, including the sex instinct, libido,and the aggressive instinct. ▪ Ego – • The ego developsinorderto mediate between the unrealistic idand the external realworld. • Itisthe decision-makingcomponentofpersonality. • The ego works by reason ▪ Superego– • The superego incorporates the valuesandmorals of society, which are learned fromone'sparentsandothers. • Itdevelopsaroundthe age of3 –5during the phallic stage of psychosexual development • The superego'sfunction is to controlthe id's impulses • The superegoconsistsoftwo systems: o The conscience - can punish the egothroughcausingfeelings ofguilt STUDYGUIDEINTROTOPSYCH EXAM #3SPRING2017 (FINAL) o The idealself- imaginary picture ofhow you oughttobe, and represents careeraspirations,how totreat otherpeople, andhow tobehave asa member of society EGODEFENSE MECHANISM 1. Repression(buryingyourfeelings) a. Mostpowerful and pervasive defense mechanism. b. Pushes unacceptable id impulses back intothe unconsciousmind 2. Rationalization (excuses) 3. Denial(notadmittingsomethingexists) a. MostPrimitive –ego simply refuses to acknowledge anxiety producing realities 4. Regression(beingababy) 5. Projection(blame) 6. Reaction formation(overprotective mother) 7. Sublimation(appropriate release) a. Specialform ofdisplacement inwhich a personexpresses an unconsciouswish in asocially valued way (ie boxing) 8. Displacement(inappropriate punching) a. Directing unacceptable impulses ata less threatening target STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT (Sex, libidinalurges,pleasure) • OralStage o Birthto 1yr ▪ Libido iscentered ina baby's mouth ▪ Itgets satisfaction fromputtingall sortsofthingsin itsmouth tosatisfy the libido, andthus its iddemands • IE) sucking, biting, andbreastfeeding. ▪ Freud saidoral stimulationcouldleadto anoral fixation inlater life. • IE) smokers, nail-biters,finger-chewers,andthumb suckers. Seen particularly when under stress. • Anal Stage o 1yr-3yrs STUDYGUIDEINTROTOPSYCH EXAM #3SPRING2017 (FINAL) ▪ Libido now becomes focused onthe anusandthe child derivesgreat pleasure from defecating • Phallic Stage o 3yr–6yrs ▪ Childbecomes aware of anatomicalsex differences –sets in motionconflict ofattraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy andfear ▪ OedipusComplex • Derivesfromgreek myth thata boy –unknowingly kills hisfatherand unknowingly marrieshismother ▪ Boyshave a castrationcomplex • Identifieswith fathertotake on male gender role ▪ Girlshave the ElectraComplex - penisenvy • Identifieswith motherto take onfemale genderrole • Latency o 6yrstopuberty ▪ Nomore psychosexualdevelopment takesplace ▪ Libido is dormant ▪ Mostofchildsenergy is put into developingskills, acquiring knowledge andmaking friends ofthe same gender • Genital o Puberty toadult ▪ Final Stage –sexual experimentation ▪ Resolution is tosettle down in arelationship ▪ Pleasure isdirected toanother person ratherthanselfpleasure (like phallic stage) JUNG • WasfollowerofFreudandthen later broke fromhim. • Psychiatristand psychoanalyst who founded analyticalpsychology HISTORICALLY • Philosophers: STUDYGUIDEINTROTOPSYCH EXAM #3SPRING2017 (FINAL) o Pavlov –ClassicalConditioning//DogSalivation Experiment o Freud–PsychoanalysisFounder o Darwin– Evolution o Skinner– Behaviorist o Humanistic – emph
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