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SO 101 Final: SO101 Final Exam REVIEW SP17

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SO 101

SO101 Final Exam Review SP17 **Still need to apply; Functionalist or conflict, nature or nurture, and a method to each reading. • The way society divides people into groups • The impact of having resources vs. not having resources • Social stratification is the division of the entire categories of people based in their relative power, property, and prestige o You can also say that it’s the study of inequality • Closed System o Born into your position in society and you CANNOT move out if it (it is permanent) o Ascribed Status: Over what they have no control ▪ Such as religion one is born into, their race, gender, or $$ family has o Closed is based off of ascribed status (feudal, caste) • Open System o One in which you can move in o Ascribed status still matters but does not determine if you can move up or down o Achieved Status: where you are at you’re peak in life o Education (combined ascribed and achieved) o Has a lot of mobility ▪ Intergenerational Mobility: movement between generations • IE) a poor father raises his son who becomes a surgeon ▪ Intragenerational Mobility: movement within a lifetime • From being a poor farmer to a wealthy businessman • Social Stratification is useful and inevitable because it is so wide spread • FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE: o Social Stratification is important ▪ Most important status: SO101 Final Exam Review SP17 • Achieved (useful & inevitable) • Argue that the reward must be better than the cost – because it will motivated people to do it ▪ From a functionalist perspective, we believe that all these values are shared – should be STABLE overtime • CONFLICT PERSPECTIVE: o Our system should based on achieved status but is based on an ascribed status ▪ Argue that we should have an open system but its more closed than anything ▪ Conflicts between people who have wealth and those who don’t • More ability to explore • Battle between haves and have nots • Useful to some but not others ▪ Conflict over social resources • Serves the interests of the powerful • Reflects the interests of those at the top o I.e.) why is a homeless person poor? ▪ Because, they should be able to support themselves ▪ Unlikely to remain stable over time • Uni-dimensional View o Karl Marx o Economic Position  Position in society (Social Status) o Capitalism ▪ $ Profit ▪ Minimal Gov’t regulation of business “laiseez faire” – little to no government regulation ▪ Private Property SO101 Final Exam Review SP17 o Contemporary Capitalism ▪ Some gov’t regulation o Owns the means of production, CEOs, etc. ▪ Bourgeoisie o Don’t own means of production, they have laborers ▪ Proletariat • Workers get paid less  cut quality  raise the price • Poor  not so healthy o Smoking, bad eating habits, stress o Public schooling  don’t have the resources to get a better education ▪ Children who attended public schools were less prepared than those who attend private schools • Functionalist: o Even with class, individual effort is the reason why people do well • Conflict: o Unequal distribution argue that these are structural imbalances that prevents people from moving ahead • Upper Class o 5 – 7 % o 200,000 $$ o Upper Upper Class (new) o Lower Upper Class (old) • Middle Class o $40 K – 200K o Upper Middle: 100K – 200K ▪ 20% o Lower middle: 40K – 100K ▪ 40% • Working Class o 20% SO101 Final Exam Review SP17 o 20 K – 40K • Lower Class o 15% o Less than $20K o Working poor – work but do not make enough o Under Class – chronically unemployed, junkies, bums, decaying neighborhoods (skeptical about the system) • Is class or race a predictor of wealth? o 5.8% of white people live below the poverty level o 19.4% African Americans below poverty level o 15.6% Latin American below poverty level o Why is there a disproportionate amount of African American’s living below the poverty level? o Age Distribution ▪ White – 39 ▪ African American – 32 ▪ Latinos – 27 o Unemployment ▪ White – 4.4% ▪ Africans – 10.1% o Higher proportion of female headed households ▪ Single moms – the poorest group in America o Family in poverty ▪ Married – 8% ▪ Single Dad – 22% ▪ Single Mom – 30 % ▪ Higher divorce rate among poor o Occupational Segregation ▪ Doctors – 5.8% ▪ Lawyers – 4/3% SO101 Final Exam Review SP17 ▪ Finance – 8.4% ▪ Architects – 5.2 % ▪ Barbers – 37.2% ▪ Postal – 29.5% ▪ Security- 28.8% ▪ Nursing 34.6% o Discrimination Management ▪ White are discriminated against less than black across the board • Gender and Earnings o Functionalists believe that inequality stems from rewards because the rewards need to motivate people o On average, women make 83% of what men make ▪ Functionalist • Men make more because they have more • Human capital invested in their work o Education, training, skills ▪ Inequality is fair because men have more invested ▪ Conflict • Statistical Discrimination o Women earn less because of discrimination ▪ Difference of $108 in men’s v women’s paychecks who did not have a HS degree ▪ $175 in those with a HS degree ▪ $284 in those with a BA ▪ $445 in those with an advanced degree ▪ Elementary/ Middle School - 82% female ▪ Social Workers – 82% SO101 Final Exam Review SP17 ▪ Nurses – 90% ▪ Receptionist – 92% ▪ Preschool/Kindergarten – 98% ▪ Surgeons – 33% ▪ Lawyers – 33% ▪ Chief Executives – 24% ▪ Pilots – 4% o If men and women are in the same positions shouldn’t they make the same amount of money? o Have to keep seniority ▪ When women are in companies that offer reasonable benefits – they tend to stay in those jobs ▪ The “mommy” factor • Parents can take off for a year ▪ Structural arrangement – the “child” penalty – depresses wages • Intergroup Relations o Prejudice – an attitude prejudging a group based on this ascribed status (attitude towards and entire group) o Discrimination – unequal treatment of their group (not hiring someone because of their race or religion) o Take action based on prejudice • La Pierre (1934) o Field Experiment ▪ Traveled around with a Chinese couple to see how they are treated (to see if they would be refused) • 250+ restaurants and hotels SO101 Final Exam Review SP17 • Only one place they were refused service but when asked if they would service Chinese customers 90% said they wouldn’t • Control group o It is possible for someone to be prejudice or not Discrimination YES NO • Prejudice - yes active bigots timid bigots No fair weather all weather LIBERAL LIBERALS • Racism – one group is inferior to another and unequal treatment is justified • Anti – Semitism – Jews are inferior to other • Homophobia – fear or hatred of gay people • Level of prejudice towards certain groups • Personality o Authoritarian personality – bigot liberal (family environm
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