Exam 2 STudy Guide for Psych 121

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PSYC - Psychology
PSYC 121
Lindsey Pittington

Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapters 5, 6, 11, part of 3) Infancy and Childhood • Be familiar with brain development and how it plays a role in motor development Nervous system development critical to develop, 3-6 most rapid growth in frontal lobes, motor abilities form in progression • Schemas Mental frameworks for organizing new information o Know different components of assimilation and accommodation Assimilation: interpret in terms of our current situation Accomidate: adjust new schemas to process new information • Piaget’s model of cognitive development o Different stages (and ages) and the main concept associated with each (object permanence, conservation, egocentrism, etc.) Sensorimotor- birth -2, child explores environment, object permanence: object remains even when hidden Preoperational- 2-6/7, can communicate, egocentricism: difficulty taking on point of view of others Concrete operational- 7-11, adapt to perspectives, conservation: object remains same even if in different shapes Formal operational: 12-adulthood, start abstract thinking, detect hypocrisy • Lorenz’s experiment on Critical Period and what it means for infants/early childhood: the optimal period for emotional and cognitive development, familiarity=safety • Attachment o Harlow experiment: monkeys went to nurturing mother except for when they were very hungry o Ainsworth Strange Situation experiment : child explored, parent left, stranger stayed, parent came back • Know the differences between the types of attachment: secure and insecure Secure: try to find caregiver when they leave, happy when they come back, sensitive mothers Insecure: upset or indifferent when caregiver leaves, continue when caregiver returns, unresponsive moms • Differences of three parenting styles: authoritarian, permissive, authoritative Authoritarian: impose rules and expect immediate obedience Permissive: make few demands and give in easily to children’s demands Authoritative: demand respect, yet responsive to children’s needs Adolescence • What is adolescence? The years between childhood and adulthood “storm and stress period” • Physical development, puberty, and brain development Physical: puberty, period of sexual maturation, capable of reproducing/ surge of hormones can intensify moods and trigger fast physical development Girls: 11 years old to 13 years old Boys: 13 years old to 15 years old Puberty: Girls- first period, can start as early as 9 or 10…..early maturation can mean emotional/physical maturation not in sync, harassment Boys- first ejaculation called spermark, starts at 14….early maturation results in being stronger, mre athletic, popular Cognitive: frontal lobe develops, myelin enables better communication, improved judgement and impulse control, seat of reason develops, moal thinking starts to develop • Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning and what answers in each stage are based on (i.e. avoiding punishment, following laws…): preconvential morality-before 9, morality focused on self interest Conventional morality-early adolescence, caring for others because there are laws and rules Postconventional morality- actions judged as right and wrong based on your beliefs • Erikson’s psychosocial crises during adolescence: social identity, how we define ourselves by relationships with others Parent child relationships tend to be in more conflict with only’s • Be familiar with the concept of emerging adulthood: late teens to early twenties, occurs mainly in western cultures Adulthood • Physical development: start to slowly decline after 20’s, muscle mass/metabolism/fertility decline at 30, start to have sensory changes (hard of hearing, sense of smell decreases) • Cognitive development; what happens when trying to memorize with age; where you are more likely to make mistakes Neural processes slow down, complex tasks become more difficult, memory and impulse control diminish, • Crystalized versus fluid intelligence: crystallized: accumulates with old age, experiences throughout life, fluid intelligence- decreases with age, reasoning and abstract thinking abilities • Erikson’s crises in adulthood; crisis in old age Intimacy- forming close relationship, generativity- leaving a mark Introduction to Sensation and Perception: Vision, and The Other Senses • Bottom-up versus top-down processing Bottom up- fine details into a whole picture, top down- broad picture into fine details • What is sensation?: stimulation of sense organs, detect and decode energy from the environment • What is perception?: selection, organization, and interpretation of sensory information • What is an absolute threshold and difference threshold Absolute threshold- minimum amount of stimulation you need to detect something 50% of the time Difference threshold- amount of stimulation needed to detect difference between two stimuli 50 of the time • Sensory adaptation : when you become “sensitized” to a new or different sense (watch on wrist) • What are the five senses?: vision, hearing, touch, taste, smell • Wavelength and intensity and how they affect our vision Wavelength: distance between 2 peaks of wavelength, leads to hue Intensity: amount of energy in a lightwave, determines brightness • Structures and functions of the eye…specifically the: o Fovea: retinas area of central focus, around which cones are centered. Stare at one word those surrounding will blur o Cochlea: • What is responsible for producing the blind spot in our vision?: where optic nerve leaves the eye • Know the difference between rods and cones (location, color/black, white, bright or dim light) Rods- retinal receptors that reflect black, white and day Cones: retinal receptor cells concentrated near center of retina, best in daylight or well lit conditions • Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic Theory versus Opponent-Process Theory Young Helmholtz tric
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