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11:067:327 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Myoepithelial Cell, Mammary Gland, Milk Fever

Animal Science
Course Code
T Roepke
Study Guide

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Puerperium- period before first estrus resumes
Myometrial contractions to remove fluids, compress vasculature
Endometrial repair- caruncle necrosis
Lactation- GNRH/LH inhibited so no ovulation or estrus
Mammary gland: supporting tissue, alveoli, ducts
cuboidal/columnar epithelium- milk synthesis
Myoepithelial cells- expel milk form alveoli into ducts
Mammary development:
Birth: atrophic ducts
Puberty: duct growth and fat deposit…….isometric growth so same as rest of
Pregnancy: lobular- alveolar
Lactation: milk….allometric growth so after hormones and rapid growth
Mammogenesis: mammary development: E, P4, Prolactin, GH
Lactogenesis: Prolactin, insulin, gluco
Lactopoesis: GH, gluco, thyroid, insulin, parathyroid, prolactin
Cancer- ductal lumen fills with cell
Long term exposure to estrogen can lead to cancer- alcohol increases estradiol
Milk production initiated by prolactin and inhibited by progesterone and
bromocryptine is dopamine agonist
Milk ejection: excitation of paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei→ increases oxytocin
from posterior pituitary→ oxytocin triggers myoepithelial cells to contract→ milk
Colostrum is the first milk which is very high in protein and fat
In cows, lactation peaks 4-6 weeks then declines, you can’t do anything even giving food
doesn’t work
Give bovine GH to increase persistency and increase total milk production
You can’t use it in early lactation only after peak production
Milk fever- muscular weakness, calcium stress, feed cow low calcium diet during dry
Mastitis- inflammation of breast
Contagious pathogens
Environmental pathogens
Teat canal- sphincter muscle and keratin
Somatic cells- macrophage, neutrophils
It takes about 15 mins for sperm to reach egg in oviduct
Oocyte cumulus cell matrix (OCC)- granulosa cell, too large to pass into ostium
Cervix depost- pigs, horses and camels

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Vaginal deposit- cow, sheep, rabbit, primates, dogs and cats
pigs/horses- rice pudding
Rodents- vaginal plug
pigs/camels- seminal fluids induce ovulation
Humans and bulls- seminal fluid neutralizes vaginal acidity
Sperm loss due to:
Phagocytosis: white cells help protect from infection
More estrogen= more white blood cells
Contractility of repro tract- motility of uterus and oviduct
E, Oxytocin, pGF2
Increases fertilization
Cervical secretions:
Sulfomucin- high viscosity- BARRIER, has ridges - wrong direction
Sialomucin- low viscosity- basal area, crypts, SILO*= reservoir - right direction
Artificial insemination- in cervix
Egg attracts sperm=
Sperm swim to higher temp- hyperactive
Epididymal sperm- surface proteins and carbs
Ejaculated sperm- seminal plasma and surface proteins
Capacitated sperm- loss of all plasma and proteins
Occurs in female tract= oviduct
Gain ability to penetrate oocyte
Move in circular pattern after
P4 and calcium, CatSper protein increase motility
capaciation→ hyperactive→ binding to zona→ acrosomal rxn→ penetrate zona→
sperm-oocyte membrane fusion→ sperm engulfed→ decondensation of sperm nucleus→
formation of male pronucleus
Complete penetration- microvilli of oocyte PM, granules migrates to oocyte PM
syngamy= moment of fertilization, fusion of both pronuclei
Immediate transport- retrograde loss, phagocytosis, enter cervix/uterus
Cervix- remove non-motile and abnormal sperm
Uterus- capacitation initiated, phagocytosis
Oviduct- capacitation completed, hyperactive
Fertilization- acrosome rxn, pronuclei form

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Asexual repro- one parent, identical child
Binary fission- bacteria, no nucleus
Vegetative propagation- identical plant
Budding- hydra, bud breaks away and live on its own
Regeneration- use cell division to regrow body parts
Porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, nematoda, mollusca, annelids, arthropods,
Porifera- sponges- move when reproduce
No nerves or muscles
Filter feeder
Hermaphrodites: function as male and female, sperm and egg
Gemmule- if env is bad then these pack of amebocytes live and grow when env is
Cnidaria- corals, sea whip, jelly
Nerve net
Planula larvae
Diploblastic- ectoderm and endoderm
Polyp- upward, thin mesoglea, fluid skeleton and calcium carbonate exoskeleton,
sessile, sea anemone
Medusa- solitary and free swimming, downwards, thick mesoglea, jelly
polyp→ budding→ medusa→ sexual→ planula larvae→ polyp
Class scyphozoa(jelly) and hydrozoa- sexual stage is medusa, polymorphism
Class anthozoa- no medusa stage, corals, polyps have flat oral disks
Platyhelminthes- flatworms, parasites
Trematoda- blood fluke
male/female repro egg→ fecal→ water→ larvae→ snail→ asexual→
swim and penetrate human skin
Cestoidea- tapeworms- suckers and hooks in head,
proglottids- sex organs
Mollusca- mollusks- snails, clams
Muscular foot, visceral mass with organs, mantle that secrete shell
Cephalopoda- octopus, squid, GNRH- like neurons
Males have special arm, hectocotlylus- deliver sperm packet
Annelida- segmented worms
Hermaphrodites that cross-fertilize
Nematoda- roundworms, non-segmented
Pinworms and hookworms- undercooked meat, juveniles inject body
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