COMM 101 Study Guide for Exam 1

15 Pages
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Department
Communication and Information
Course Code
04:189:101
Professor
Nick Linardopoulos

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1 Communication 101 Spring 2013 Intro and Syllabus 1.22.13 Definitions What is communication? - Class answers: o How you tell/express information through thoughts, messages, body language, etc o How to express your own thoughts and also how you receive and listen to the information and messages around you o Process where you give and take information o The ability to understand and react to a message o Verbal and nonverbal communication o Visually you can take in information o Tech can play a huge role in how we communication - Professor’s answers: o A two-way (at least) process of interchanging information, thoughts, opinions, ideas… o Unidirectional/Bidirectional/Multidirectional  Unidirectional: One-way (not one party). One party is running the communication and relays the information  Mass media  Bidirectional: Two-way. You send and receive messages  Having a conversation with a friend  Multidirectional: Several parties involved in the communication and conversation  The video: The meeting was multidirectional because there were multiple parties and everyone has a chance to participate and say something  Every person is a party but we say party and not people because there can be parties that are people..Ex: animals o Verbal/Nonverbal o Context: interpersonal, small groups, mass o Medium: Face-to-face, mediated In this course, we will explore communication as a phenomenon that has a crucial role in our lives. Communication is everywhere: - In our close relationships (Family/Friends) o Ex: how our conversation and the way we communicate will effect a relationship - At school (Talking and interacting in class, writing papers) o Ex: Conveying our thoughts in class - At the workplace (interacting with our boss, co-workers, providing and receiving memos, information) o Ex: relationships with co-workers - At home (the internet, videogames, TV, newspapers, journals) 1.24.13 What is Communication 2 - An exchange of messages and information with verbal and nonverbal communication across multiple medias and mediums o Nonverbal can also include things like pitch tone etc - A two-way (at least) process of interchanging information, thoughts. Opinions, ideas… - Unidirectional/Bidirectional/Multidirectional - Verbal/nonverbal - Context: interpersonal, mass o Interpersonal: Relationship o Mass: TV - Medium: Face-to-face, mediated o Face-to-face: in person o Mediated: cell phone, online chat So communication is everywhere; communication is complex (dynamic and unpredictable, manifested differently across levels, situations, contexts). How do we know Communication? - Theories o Cognitive frameworks that guide us to understand phenomena around us  Cognitive: Mental processes and anything that is going on in our head.  Cognitive framework: how we think about the things around us and the world. The way we perceive the world around us. o A theory is a way to describe, explain, predict, and control something (e.g., objects, people, relationships, events) - Personal (native) theories o Based on our own life experiences  You date someone and it doesn’t work out and then you date another person and the same thing happens and it doesn’t work out, so based on these experiences you will create your own theories about relationships o Taken for granted  Assume it’s correct o Stable  Hard to change and always automatic o Private - Scholarly theories o Scientific (systematic; empirical)  Systematic: planned and tested/Empirical: based on data and experiments o Questioned (thus, subject to modification)  Not taken for granted  To see if they come up with the same information and in hopes to improve the theory  And communication is always changing o Public: Mass media, scholarly journals, conferences, etc So, what is Communication? Communication – some definitions: - Communication refers to the processes by which verbal and nonverbal messages are used to create and share messages (Frey, Botan, & 2000) 3 - Communication is a social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment (West & Turner, 2009) o Focuses on the social component - Human communication is the process through which individuals in relationships, groups, organizations, and societies create and use information to relate to the environment and one another (Ruben & Stewart, 2006, p.17) Why Study Communication, then? - Communication is everywhere - Understanding communication processes will help you to understand your life better, and even to manage situations in your life in a better way (Read The Benefits of Communication Skills handout to learn more!) What is Communication? Communication – some definitions: - Communication refers to the processes by which verbal and nonverbal messages are used to create and share messages (Frey, Botan, & 2000) - Communication is a social process in which individuals employ symbols to establish and interpret meaning in their environment (West & Turner, 2009) o Focuses on the social component - Human communication is the process through which individuals in relationships, groups, organizations, and societies create and use information to relate to the environment and one another (Ruben & Stewart, 2006, p.17) Communication is a very interdisciplinary kind of research - Cross discipline - Over laps with other disciplines such as psych, sociology, etc Handout: The Benefits of Communication Skills Joshua Uebergang - In what aspects of life does communication matter? o In all aspects o Self, well-being, and satisfaction o How does communicating better help to improve yourself?  People will understand you  Hence make better opportunities for you (interview into job)  Confidence  You can articulate interests, ideas, goals, etc better  Both to other people and to yourself o Relationships o Why and how?  Helps in conflict resolution  Reduces conflict and distance  Encourages closeness/intimacy  Helps in the workplace  Speaking with people  Interpreting work info and documents o Receiving and providing information (environment) 4  Understanding the language of the environment  Reading signs etc Five Levels of Communication - Intrapersonal o Communication with self (within one’s self) o Talking to yourself in your head (conscious)  Considerations  Debating o Some people think intrapersonal communication should be studied not in comm but sociology. o Other people think this concept bridges the two studies - Interpersonal o Communication with another person o Two/Dyad - Group o Communication with a group of people o Three up to usually around 10,12,20  Depends on the presence of affective feedback  If everyone can participant and give immediate feedback - Public o Around 30-50 o Speeches o Class presentations o Audience present o You can see everyone and potentially interact with everyone there  Some facial feedback - Mass o To large masses of people o One source of information and it is mostly a one sided conversation o Sometimes the audience isn’t even there o Usually through technology o Mass Media/Mass Communication  New, TV, Radio, Internet, Newspapers A unique channel of communication - Mediated o When a medium is involved o Intrapersonal: Blog, journal (doesn’t need to be technological) o Interpersonal: cell phone, social network, video chat, computer o Group: email, group text o Public: classes with a video streamed lecture o Mass: TV, newspaper 2/5/13 Five Levels of Communication - Intrapersonal o Communication with self (within one’s self) 5 o Talking to yourself in your head (conscious)  Considerations  Debating o Some people think intrapersonal communication should be studied not in comm but sociology. o Other people think this concept bridges the two studies - Interpersonal o Communication with another person o Two/Dyad - Group o Communication with a group of people o Three up to usually around 10,12,20  Depends on the presence of affective feedback  If everyone can participant and give immediate feedback - Public o Around 30-50 o Speeches o Class presentations o Audience present o You can see everyone and potentially interact with everyone there  Some facial feedback - Mass o To large masses of people o One source of information and it is mostly a one sided conversation o Sometimes the audience isn’t even there o Usually through technology o Mass Media/Mass Communication  New, TV, Radio, Internet, Newspapers A unique channel of communication - Mediated o When a medium is involved o Intrapersonal: Blog, journal (doesn’t need to be technological) o Interpersonal: cell phone, social network, video chat, computer o Group: email, group text o Public: classes with a video streamed lecture o Mass: TV, newspaper Interdisciplinary field - Communication is a very interdisciplinary kind of research o Cross discipline o Over laps with other disciplines such as psych, sociology, etc It All Started - With the rhetorical tradition (Ancient Greece) - Citizens hired Sophists to understand principles of persuasion o Because they to defect themselves (self attorney) they had to be good at public speaking 6 o Sophists are teachers that taught about public speaking/communication - Sophists created public speaking handbooks - Aristotle criticized the Sophists’ handbooks and created the three books of the Rhetoric o Speaker o Speech itself (Language and tricks you can incorporate into speech) o Audience - Rhetoric (public communication) = the available means of persuasion Development of speech and Journalism - Early twentieth century: Speech emerged as a discipline - 1920’s – 1940’s: As new technologies emerged (Radio, then TV), journalism’s popularity increase o WWII o Media played a significant role in persuading people to behave in a certain way - 1950’s: Communication had expanded beyond speech and rhetoric to include physiology of speech and speech pathology, debate, theater, linguistics o Media studies continue to develop - 1960’s: Communication is integrated to become and independent discipline Popularity Grows… - Communication vs. Communications o Communication: process of sending and receiving messages (i.e. through face-to-face) and to the discipline as a whole o Communications: Media or messages sent through the media (technology) The Information Age - Started in the late 1980’s but we’re still in it - Information being bought and sold (a commodity) - The internet increases in popularity worldwide - Hybrid Media o Converging media: when you see different functions that use to be provided separately come together into one. Media and technology is converging and sharing functions.  Ex: cell phone: originally was meant for calls but now you can take pictures, surf the internet, use the GPS, play games, etc Communication Today - Continues as the center of a strong discipline in its own right o Recall the five levels of communication - Links scholars and practitioners from many other fields (interdisciplinary) Communication 101 Spring 2013 Theoretical Models in Communication 2.5.13 Linear Models Aristotle (4 Century B.C.) - Saw communication as the means through which citizens participate in democracy - A verbal activity done by one-to-many 7 o “One-way communication” o Emphasis on persuasion - Speaker Argument Speech Listeners - Also referred to as S-M-R (Sender – Message – Receiver) o Linear:  Sender Receiver Lasswell “Who says what to whom in what channel and with what effect” - Who: a speaker/a source of information - What: a message - To Whom: an audience - Channel: a medium - Effect: the possible impact, influence - Media have unlimited power (“The magic bullet”) o The idea that the audience could not resist the media and the information that was coming from the media o Media had the power to influence in three different levels  Cognitively: How they think and perceive the world around them  Ex: Stereotypes  Emotionally: How they feel about the information they are receiving  Ex: Scary movies  Behaviorally: How we act  Ex: Can change how we vote by propaganda - A linear model Shannon and Weaver - Expansion of communication - Introduces “Noise” o Anything outside the message itself o Unintended by the sender o May distort, change, or prevent it from being received o Anything that can interfere with the message reception - Source of Noise: (4) o Semantic Noise (Language, words)  Not understanding slang, professional language  Foreign language o Physical Noise (From the environment, background)  Loud noises that get in the way of hearing from the environment  Usually external from the conversation o Psychological Noise (Cognitive)  Culture can have an affect
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