[01:198:170] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (67 pages long)

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Rutgers
01:198:170
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Thursday, September 8, 2016
Chapter 1: Defining Information Technology
-Information technology (IT): Study & use of systems for storing, trading, sending &
processing
Computer taking raw data, process it, convert to info & store it
-How we do business:
Cloud services: dropbox, iCloud, google drive
World Wide Web: allows us to sell products around the world
Data analysis: finding out data about customers & target market
Social media
video games
-Data:
Digitizing information: data represented as numbers
Machines reading digital info— breakthrough!
Without software, a computer = worthless
-Hardware can just process simple instructions very fast
-Computers only recognize the presence or absence of something
First case of digitized info = 1890 census data
-Punch cards digitized a 8 year process that was done by hand
We are able 2 capture more complex data thanks 2 digitalization (makes the
process of collecting info much easier & efficient)
-Computers:
First computers just did math (fully mechanical via hand crank or steam powered)
Next computers were all hardware (relied on vacuum tubes that overheated &
consumed a lot of electricity)
Most recent computers are PC (hardware & software)
!1
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Thursday, September 8, 2016
-Most electricity used in computers = fans that cool down chip & hardware
-What makes computers work:
Software stack: device — hardware (translates data so that it can be used by next
level/software) — software (gets data in & out of where it’s stored) — applications/
user
-Each level only needs to know how to talk to the next level
Simplifies process of communicating data
Allows us to eliminate bugs & focus on only certain levels without having to
worry about actually receiving/sending data
-Abstraction: when we write a software program, we need to extract important info
from non-important info
To remove the basic concept, idea or process from a situation
Abstraction helps hiding complexity
Details that are irrelevant for understanding from a special point of view = ignored
-Algorithm: use it to solve a problem (steps you need 2 solve a problem/complete a
job)— could be a math formula (algorithm is not a program!)
Precise & systematic method 2 produce a specified result
Find best possible way to do something effectively & efficiently
The smarter the algorithm, the smarter/more efficient the computer is
-An algorithm should have an end & produce a result
!2
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