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01:510:102- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 70 pages long!)


Department
European History Courses
Course Code
01:510:102
Professor
Betrand Metton
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:510:102
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Thursday, September 7, 2017
The Wars of Religion and Their Aftermath
Begins at the end of 15th and beginning of 16th century
Emergence of urban merchants (bourgeoisie)
city states in Italy
Holy Roman Empire
Modern successor of Charlemagne’s Empire
1500, Emperor was elected by 7 German princes
Most powerful family in Europe and German Empire was Habsburg family (from
Austria)
Charles V was emperor from 1519-1556
Election of Mathias in 1612
Until beginning of 16th century, Europe was religiously unified by Catholic Church
Kings recognized the Pope for moral and religious authority from Spain to Poland
Catholic Church was corrupt, controlled by powerful families, sold indulgences
Martin Luther opposed in 1517, became large figurehead of large reformation
movement
Martin Luther (1483-1546)
1517: Luther published ’95 Theses’, denouncing sale of indulgences and corruption of
Catholic Church
1520: In ‘Freedom of a Christian’, Luther argued: priesthood of all believers, salvation
by faith alone, study of bible by scripture alone
Spread of Protestantism
Luther’s ideas spread rapidly with help from Gutenberg’s 1440s invention: printing
press
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Thursday, September 7, 2017
Gained a larger following of middle-class clerics and laypeople throughout Germany
and appealed to German nobility in To The Christian Nobility of the German Nation
(1520)
Gained protection of Frederick the Wise, Duke of Saxony
Protestantism spread to Scandinavia and the King of Denmark and Sweden converted
from Catholicism
The Peace of Augsburg (1555)
Inspired by Luther, other religious reformers such as Zwingli or Calvin developed new
ideas
While in Germany a widespread peasant rebellion was crushed in 1525, many rulers
chose to side with Protestants
In 1555, the temporary Peace of Augsburg was treaty between Catholic Holy Roman
Emperor Charles V and Protestant Princes
Stated that each prince was to determine whether Lutheranism (not Calvinism) or
Catholicism
Spread of Calvinism in France
French religious reformist John Calvin (1509-1564) established a theocratic state in
Geneva
His ideas spread to France and Europe, and by 1560 a third of French nobles
followed his ideas
Calvin was an austere and radical preacher who developed the doctrines of
Predestination and the Sovereignty of God in Salvation
French Wars of Religion (1562-1598)
Weakened by deaths of Henry II and his son Francis II, the French royal family failed
to limit spread of Calvinism
Tension between Catholics and Protestants rose and by 1562 turned into a Civil War,
both sides perpetuated massacres against priests and laymen
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