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01:447:390- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 71 pages long!)


Department
Genetic
Course Code
01:447:390
Professor
Dr.Anne Keating
Study Guide
Final

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Rutgers
01:447:390
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Microbiology- Lecture 1
Microbes:
A - Small
o <100 micrometers diameter -> need a microscope
o Unicellular
o Study of :
Bacteria
Fungi
Certain algae
Viruses (not living)
o small size maintains high surface area to volume ratio -> important b/c maximizes chemical
exchange with environment
B - tremendous impact on earth
o Table 1.1 Characteristics of microbes
C- Human use of Microbes
o Table 1.2
Carrying out chemical activities of major industrial importance
Engineering fo production of useful proteins e.g. vaccines
Enhancing food production and preservation
Providing vital public health measures , such as sewage disposal
Bioremediation of polluted sites
Malevolent warfare ( biological warfare, bioterrorism)
Source of heat-resistant enzymes
D- Great Diversity + complex interactions
o Abudance - about 60% of Earth's biomass
Ex: adult human body - about 1013 cells -> inhabited by about 1014 microbial cells
o No other life forms are as important as microorganisms
Ex: photosynthesis
Biogeochemical cycles- chemical transformations of life, microorganisms breakdown the
material and release it
o Disease
E- Evoltionary history:
o Fig. 1.8 - evolution of life forms on earth
Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago
Cyanobacteria- capable of oxygenic photosynthesis
Bacteria and Archea branched from a common ancestor and from them all other
o LUCA - Last Universal Common Ancestor
Box 1.2
Essential building blocks generated in spontaneous chemical reactions- Prebiotic
phase
RNA captured lipid micelles- Protocell evolution
Contained DNA , RNA
o Simplified three-domain tree
Fig. 1.9
Bacteria and Archea (prokaryotes)
Bacteria- big B - domain; bacteria- little b = prokaryotes ( Bacteria + Archea)
Viruses - not inculded in tree
II. Microscopes
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a. Autani van L. ( 1632- 1723
Microscopes - 50-300X magnification
Excellent quality
Father of microscopy
Refused sell and share his microscope
b. Modern microscopy
3 main features
1. Magnification- ratio of size of the image seen to its actual size
2. Resolution- resolving power; measure of clarity; definition: minimum distance
between two objects at which both can be seen separately.
a. Quality of lens
b. Wavelength of light
c. Light must pass btw 2 objects so they can be seen separatly
d. As wavelength goes down the resolution goes up
3. Contrast- making something standout, look different form its background.
a. Use stains
Basic Types
1. Compound Light microscope
a. Illuminator in base - produces visible light
i. The light passes thourgh blue filter and filters out longer
wavelengths of light
ii. Then goes to condesor - converges light beam
iii. Then goes to specimen
iv. Though obejective lens- magnifies the image
v. Through ocular lens- final measure of magnification
vi. Total Mag- mag power of objective lens X mag power of ocular lens
vii. Best maginification = 1000X
viii. Best resolution = 1 micrometer
2. Electron microscope
a. Beam of electrons- shorter wavelength than visible light- much better
reoslution
b. Magnification- 250,000X or better
c. Resolution - 1 nanometer
d. TEM - transmission electron microscope
i. Specimen imbedded in plastic , cut into thin slices , 50-100
nanometer in thickness
ii. Stained with heavy metal ; improve contrast
iii. Electron beam passes through slice
iv. Image on screen
e. SEM- scanning electron microscope
i. Surfaces
ii. Specimen - coated with thin flim of gold
iii. Electron beam strikes the surface of specimen and bounce off
iv. Secondary eletcrons emitted from surfce
v. Intensity varies with surface contours
vi. 3-D image
f) Drawbacks
Kill specimen
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