Final Exam Review PS103.docx

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Rutgers University
Political Science
Professor Nappen

Federal bureaucracy Thousands of federal got agencies and institutions that implement and administer federal laws and programs Spoils system The firing of public-office holders of a defeated political party to replace them with loyalists of newly elected party Patronage Jobs, grants, or other special favors that are given to friends and political allies in exchange for their support. Pendleton Act Reform measure that established the principle of federal employment on the basis of open, competitive exams and created Civil Service Commission Merit System A system of employment based on qualifications, test scores, and ability, rather than party loyalty Civil service system The merit system by which many federal bureaucrats are selected Independent regulatory commission An entity created by congress outside a major executive department Departments Major administrative unit with responsibility for a broad area of government operations. Departmental status usually indicates a permanent national interest in a particular governmental function, such as defense, commerce, or agriculture. Independent executive agencies Governmental units that closely resemble a cabinet department but have narrower areas of responsibility and perform services rather than regulatory functions; ex NASA and the EPA Government Corporations Companies created by Congress to provide to the public a good or service that private enterprise cannot or will not profitably provide Ex. Post Office Hatch Act The 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. Prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate Implementation Process by which a law or policy is put into operation Iron triangles The relatively stable relationships and patterns of interaction that occur among agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees or subcommittees Issue networks Larger and looser connection of interest groups, committees, and agencies in a particular policy area Administrative adjudication A quasi-judicial process in which a bureaucratic agency settles disputes between two parties in a manner similar to the way courts resolve disputes Foreign policy Area of policy making that has how one country builds relationships with others to safeguard its national interest Defense policy Are of policy-making that focuses on the strategies that a country uses to protect itself from its enemies Isolationism The foreign policy course the United States followed throughout most of its history whereby it tried to stay out of other nations’ conflicts, particularly European wars. Farewell Address George Washington's speech to signify the end of his presidency. He warned the nation to remain neutral in European affairs and to not form political parties. Monroe Doctrine Was the foreign policy statement delivered by President James Monroe stating 1) the U.S. would not interfere in the European affairs, and 2) the western hemisphere was closed to colonization and/or interference by European Nations. Tariffs Taxes governments levy on imports and abroad. Manifest destiny Belief that us explanation across North America was justified and inevitable even ordained by god now applied to imperialism Roosevelt Corollary President Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, in which he declared that the US had the right to exercise "police power" throughout the Western Hemisphere; US had responsibility to ensure stability in Latin America and the Caribbean- Collective security The idea that an attack on one state by another should be understood as an attack on all states. UN Security Council Is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security Bretton Woods System International financial system devised shortly before the end of WWII that created the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund International Monetary Fund (IMF) The international organization created by the Bretton Woods agreement whose objective is to promote the growth of world trade by making loans to countries experiencing balance-of-payments difficulties World Bank An organization established by the industrialized nations in 1946 to loan money to underdeveloped and developing countries General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) An agreement among nations to reduce worldwide tariffs and increase international trade Containment U.S. policy designed to contain the spread of communism by offering military and economic aid to threatened nations - designed to contain Soviet aggression Truman Doctrine U.S. anti-communist policy initiated in 1947 that became the basis of U.S. foreign policy throughout the Cold War Marshall Plan European Collective recovery program, named after Secretary of State George Marshall, that provided American aid to Western Europe after World War II North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) The first peacetime military treaty the US joined, collective security pact that includes US, Canada, and Western Europe. NATO is regional, political and military organization created in 1950 Cuban Missile Crisis The 1962 confrontation over deployment of ballistic missiles in Cuba that nearly escalated into nuclear war between US and Soviet Union Detente The relaxation of the tensions between the U.S and Soviet Union that occurred in the 1970's; Richard Nixon Human rights People’s individual rights to justice, freedom, and equality, considered by most societies to belong automatically to people Reagan Doctrine The Reagans administration’s commitment to ending communism by providing military assistance to anti-communist groups Democratic enlargement Policy implemented during Clinton administration in which US would actively promote the expansion of democracy and free markets throughout the world World Trade Organization (WTO) International organization that replaced the GATT in 1995 to supervise and expand international trade European Union International organization comprised of 27 Western Europe countries into a union that includes free trade, a central bank, and common currency, ease of immigration, a European Parliament and other political institutions Global war on terrorism International action initiated by Bush after 9/11 to weed out terrorist operatives Taliban Fundamentalist Islamic militia group that controlled Afghan from 1996 until US military intervention in 2001; provided refuge for al-Qaeda, allowing terrorist training camps Department of State Chief executive-branch department responsible for formulation and implementation of US foreign policy Department of defense Executive department charged with managing the country's military personnel, equipment, and operations; Secretary Panetta; largest department Joint Chiefs of Staff Military advisory body that includes the Army and Air Force chief of staff, chief of naval operations, and the Marine commandant Department of Homeland Security Cabinet department created after 9/11 to coordinate domestic security efforts; Napolitano War Powers Resolution Act passed by Congress in 1973; president is limited in deployment of troops overseas to 60 (sometimes 90 to permit withdrawal) period in peacetime; unless Congress approves for longer period; (must notify within 48 hours?) Military-industrial complex The network of political and financial relations formed by defense industries, the US armed forces, and Congress. Protectionism Policy of blocking or restricting trade from other countries in order to protect domestic businesses through tariffs and subsidies to domestic firms Strategic Trade Policy Government policy aimed at improving the competitive position of a domestic firm in the world market Free Trade System A system of international trade with limited government interference on goods and services among countries North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Agreement that promotes free movement of goods and services among Canada, Mexico, and the U.S. What three departments existed under the Articles of Confederation in 1789? Foreign Affairs (State), War, and Treasury State Department Helps formulate and carry out U.S. foreign Policy What is the Federal Bureaucracy? The set of government agencies that carry out and implement government policies. The civil war (1861-1865) permanently changed the nature of the Federal Bureaucracy Which U.S. president signed legislation in 1862, establishing the first U.S. Department of Agriculture? Abraham Lincoln The Cold War led to the creation of new government agencies such as the: CIA and National Security Agency To pay benefits to thousands of Union veterans, Congress created the Pension Office The spoils system was a form of patronage Jobs, grand’s, or other special favors that are given as rewards to friends and political allies for their support Political patronage is often defended as an essential element of the party system because It provides rewards and inducements for party workers President James A. Garfield Started the Pendleton Act-was assassinated before its completion-was not in the liking to run & wins by 30,000 votes-it took weeks for him to pass away from the gunshot wound Civil Service Reform Act of 1883 Public reaction to Garfield's death and increasing criticism of the spoils system caused Congress to pass Interstate Commerce Commission Due to tremendous growth of business, price fixing, and unfair business practices Congress created this in 1887 Congress This branch within the government can ensure accountability in the bureaucracy by controlling and regulating agencies budgets The ratification of the sixteenth amendment in 1913 Gave Congress the authority to implement a federal tax income to supplement the national treasury and provided a huge infusion of funds to support new federal agencies, services, and programs. President Roosevelt Created hundreds of new government agencies to regulate business practices and various aspects of national economy. World War II (1939-1945) prompted an expansion of the federal bureaucracy; tax rates increased to support war Federal Bureaucrats Career government employees who work in the executive branch in the cabinet level departments and independent agencies that comprise of more than 2,000 bureaus, divisions, offices, services, and other subunits of the federal government. General schedule A schedule for federal employees, ranging from GS 1 to GS 18, by which salaries can be keyed to rating and experience. Appointive policy-making positions Most are presidential appointees, others are subject to Senate confirmation Responsible for appointing high level policy making assistants who form the top of the bureaucratic hierarchy Independent Regulatory Commissioners Although appointed by President, they become independent of his direct political influence one they take office. (NOT CIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM) Low-level nonpolicy patronage positions Secretarial assistants to policy makers Major concern about the federal workforce High rate of turnover in many important positions; especially true in Dept. of Homeland Security Formal Organization Distinctive feature of the executive bureaucracy; traditional division into areas of specialization Department of State The U.S. _______ assists the president with making treaties, receiving foreign delegates and appointing diplomatic officials. Cabinet departments Major administrative units that have responsibility for conducting broad areas of government operations. 60% of federal workforce Department of Homeland Security (Federal law enforcement) Transportation security administration, customs and border protection, citizenship and immigration services, immigration and customs enforcement, secret service, emergency management agency, coast guard. Largest department Department of Justice Responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. Incorporates: ATF, FBI, DEA, US Marshals, Interpol Department of Defense Protects the natation's security and oversees armed forces (largest department) Department of the Treasury An executive department of the US government. Est. 1789 to manage government revenue and to ensure the financial security of the country. Dept. is administered by the Secretary of the Treasury who is a member of the Cabinet. Department of the Interior Manages the nation's natural resources, including wildlife and public lands Department of Agriculture Is the United States federal executive department responsible for developing and executing U.S. federal government policy on farming, agriculture, and food? They attained cabinet status in 1889 and researched and added to farmer's knowledge and improved crop yields. Department of Commerce Conducts national census, monitors weather, protects interests of businesses. Grant patents and trademarks. Department of Labor Cabinet department created to promote the welfare and employment of working people Department of Transportation helps nation's transportation policy supervises federal aid highway program promotes transportation safety keep and build roads to keep them safe Department of Housing and Urban Development Involved with nation's housing needs, develops and rehabilitates urban communities, promotes improvements in city streets and parks. Department of Health and Human Services Principal agency for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services, especially for those who are least able to help themselves. Department of Education Coordinates federal assistance programs for public and private schools, helps physically challenged and limited English proficiency students. Department of Veterans Affairs It administers several hospitals as well as educational and other programs designed to benefit veterans and their families. Hatch Act The 1939 act to prohibit civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns. Prohibited federal employees from making political contributions, working for a particular party, or campaigning for a particular candidate Department of Energy Conducts research on sources of energy, promotes the conservation of fuel and electricity and directs programs to deal with possible shortages Rational legal bureaucracies (Max Weber) Run smoothly, machine-like, authority/ clear rules, specific responsibility, high specialization, promotion based on performance Example of Bureaucracies Division of Labor 2. Hierarchy of Authority 3. Rules and Regulation 4. Impersonality 5. Record Keeping 1946 Administrative Procedures Act Established rule-making procedures to give everyone a chance to participate. Requires: public notice of time/place, interested parties, statutory purpose Judicial control Less apparent than the President and Congress control. Federal judges can however issue injunctions or order to an executive agency even before a rule is publicized, giving the federal judiciary a potent check on bur
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