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01:830:101 (91)
Xi Wang (6)

exam 2 study guide #2.docx

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Xi Wang

1 Sensation conversion of energt from the environment into a pattern of response by the nervous system detect stimuli 2 Perception interpretation of information from the environment 3 receptors respond to wave lengths 300-700 namometers 4 electromagnetic spectrum gamma rays xrays UV infrared radio tv transmissions 5 cornea rigid transparent structure on surface of eye 6 Fovea central area of the human retina; adapted for highly detailed vision ****receptors***** 7 Presbyopia age related inability to focus on nearby objects **decrease in lens flexibility** 8 Myopia nearsightness inability to foucs on distant objects 9 Hyperopia farsightness inability to focus on close objects 10 Glaucoma increased pressure in the eye 11 Cones color vision/day time vision more axonal connections to brain **fovea** 12 Rods dim light vision 13 retinaldehydes receptor that maintains a constant level of sensitivity in unchanging light 14 in absense of light......retinaldehydes... regenerate w/o interruption allows consistent improvement in vision 15 Visiual pathway —Visual receptors sendimpulses away from the brain, to the center of the eye. —Here they connect to bipolarcells (neurons). —Bipolar cells makecontact with ganglion cells, whose axons join together to form the opticnerve. —These separate into 4segments: two for each eye. ½ of the segments in each eye go to the oppositeside of the brain. —The space in the retinawhere axons exit is the blind spot. (no room for receptors there.) 16 short wave length cones indigo-green 17 medium wavelength cones blue-orange 18 long wave length cones blue-red 19 Trichromatic Theory -theory of color vision that proposes three types of cones: red, blue, and green. **problems** -does not explain after image - yellow 20 Opponent Processes Theory Theory that assumes that the visual system treats pairs of colors and the opposing ones. 21 retinex theory we perceive color when the cerebral cortex compares various retinal patterns 22 Ear pinna converts sound waves into mechanical displacements along a row of receptors 23 how sound works waves strike eardrum stirrup vibrates transfers to cochlea 24 conduction Deafness bones connected to the eardrum fail to transmit sound wavesproperly to the cochlea. Can be repaired surgically. 25 nerve deafness disease, heredity, exposure to loud noises destroy eithercochlea or efferent neurons. Cannot be surgically repaired. Hearing aids help. 26 humans hear sound waves from 15 hz to 15,000 hz 27 higher frequencies use_____ volleys- a group of hair cells 28 Semicircular canals jellylike substance excites hair cells and sends messages ofdirection to the brain three canals- help with balance 29 Otoliths contain calcium carbonate particles which, when the head tilts,excite receptors and send message of direction -give head sense of orientation 30 vestibular sense the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance 31 cutaneous senses skin senses 32 Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) a region of the brain associated with the perceived unpleasantness of a pain sensation 33 gate control theory of pain a gating mechanism in the spinal cord opens and closes to let pain messages through to the brain or to shut them out 34 Substance P. neurotransmitter released with intense pain 35 FAS- alcohol intefers with _____ NT Glutamate constant excitement needed for neuronal development 36 cross-sectional study a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another 37 longitudinal design a technique that tracks the responses of the same sample of respondents over time 38 SelectiveAttrition The tendency for some kinds of people to be more likely than others to drop out of a study 39 Sequential Design- combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches 40 Assimilation applying old schema to new problems 41 Accomodation modifying old schema to fit new problems/objects 42 Infants shift back and forth between assimilation and accomodation: Equilibration is the establishment of balance between the two = intellectual growth
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