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GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY Final Exam Review -- 4.0ed the final exam!

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PSYCH 101 FINAL – STEIN 1. Asperger’s Syndrome – Highly functioning individuals on the autism spectrum: have no language deficiency. 2. Autism - developmental (main symptoms) - Impaired social abilities, communications - Restricted Interests - Repetitive behavior - if a child fails to develop language before the age of 4 - start off with large brains, smaller than normal later in life - high heritability, at least 26 genes implicated. 3. Paranoid Schizophrenia - Elaborate hallucinations and delusions, particularly of persecution and grandeur. 4. Catatonic Schizophrenia - prominent movement disorder; either rigid inactivity or excessive activity. 5. Anhedonia - Inability to experience pleasure from that which you did before. 6. Schizophrenia - a deterioration of daily activities, including work, social relations, self-care; it is a developmental disorder. Dopamine destruction of neurons in the brain, have large ventricles (holes), constantly damaging the brain. 7. Mania - The opposite of depression: active, uninhibited. Lithium is most common method of treatment. 8. Bipolar II Disorder – episodes of major depression and hypomania (milder form of mania) 9. Bipolar I Disorder – have had at least one episode of mania 10. Electroconvulsive Shock Therapy & other treatments – People feel better after 2 weeks. Others: bright light, exercise, seafood, sleep deprivation. 11. Early depression vs late depression – before 30 years old, probably have family history vs after 50 years old, probably family history of blood circulation problems. 12. Axis 4 – Childhood abuse would be described in which axis of DSM-IV scale 13. Methadone – In certain doses will give the same high as heroin; a pill which addresses withdrawal symptoms. 14. Opiate vs Opioids – Opiate comes from opium (the plant), while opioids are synthetically made with the same chemical composition as opiates. 15. Antabus (disulfuram) –Adrug that if you take it & drink alcohol you will get very much sick. Blocks acetaldehyde and dehydrogenase. 16. Type 2 alcoholics - largely male, start abusing alcohol early in life, often have legal issues. Have a very high rate of abstinence from alcohol when using SSRI’s. 17. Type 1 alcoholics - male or females, start abusing alcohol at a later age, it’s very gradual, they are not likely to have criminal issues. 18. Partly Operant Conditioning - Seeking an experience that has been rewarding in the past. 19. Nucleus accumbens - The part of the brain responsible for the reward feeling system. Respond to SURPRISE events (it’s about attention), but not to pleasant events.Also active when you are seeking for addictive substances. 20. Cleaning vs. Checking Compulsions - Cleaning leaves people feeling better whereas checking does not. 21. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - Obsession & compulsion; typically runs in family, but no gene found to associate with it. 2-3% prevalent in US 22. Compulsion - repetitive, almost irresistible action. Obsessions lead to compulsions, like an itch leads to a scratch. Exposure therapy works best. 23. Obsession – repetitive, unwelcome stream of thought. 24. Systematic desensitization - A method of reducing fear by gradually exposing people to the object of their fear. Similar to Skinner’s shaping procedure: reward of successive approximations of behavior; virtual reality also proves as successful treatment. 25. What is the biggest fear of panic disorders - Fear of losing control. 26. Avoidance behavior - Once you avoid a punishment you experience a reward, so the more you find yourself avoiding an experience, the harder it is to treat it 27. Symptoms of a panic disorder – Sweating, rapid breathing, heart rate, dizziness, nausea, shaking, faintness. 28. CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) – Going through the motions of something like someone who is not affected by anxiety disorder will help function as someone who doesn’t have one. 29. GAD GeneralizedAnxiety Disorder -Almost constantly plagued with exaggerated worries. Causes tension, irritability, relationship problems; people tend to have depression & panic attacks when they have GAD. Respond well to antidepressants & CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) 30. Where are anxiety disorders most commonly diagnosed? - India, followed by US 31. DSM-IV Classifications • Axis 1: Mental disorders that represent some deterioration of function. • Axis 2: Personality Disorder and Mental retardation.Astable IQ below 70. • Axis 3: general medical conditions (diabetes, alcoholic cirrhosis, etc.) • Axis 4: psychological and environmental problems (like someone who suffered from child abuse) • Axis 5: global assessment of functioning: suicidality (1) to happy & productive (100) 32. James Brussels – Compared criminal profiling abilities of professional profilers, chemistry majors, psychics, police/firefighters.All did about the same, psychics did worse, professional profilers did a bit better. 33. Stroop Emotional Test – Say color of each word, people who feared snakes took longer to say color of the word snake. 34. ThematicApperception Test -Aperson is shown a picture then asked to make up a story. Evaluation of what is said is inconsistent, only good for an opener. 35. The Barnum Effect -Answering a question one way and then answering the rest the same way. 36. The Myers-Briggs Type indicator -Atest of normal personality types based on Carl Jung’s theories. 37. NEO-PI-R – An objective personality test designed to asses the Big Five personality traits. Neuroticism, Extraversion,Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness. 38. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – T-F questions intended to measure certain personality dimensions and clinical conditions; new questions look for suicidal tendencies. 39. The BIG FIVE model of personality • Neuroticism: “I have many worries” • Extraversion: “I make friends easily” • Agreeableness: “I believe others have good intentions” • Conscientiousness: “I complete most tasks on time or early” (variable w/ age) • Openness: “I believe art is important for its own sake” 40. Personality: State – temporary activation of a particular behavior 41. Personality: Trait – a consistent, long-lasting tendency in behavior, such as shyness, hostility, or talkativeness. 42. IdiographicApproach - Intensive studies of individuals 43. NomotheticApproach to studying Personality - General laws about various aspects of personality based on large studies 44. Abraham Maslow’s Self Actualized Personalities had 6 similar traits: • Accurate perception of reality • Independence, Creativity, Spontaneity • Acceptance of self and others • Problem centered outlook • Enjoyment of life • Agood sense of humor 45. Unconditional Positive Regard – (Carl Rogers) complete acceptance of the patient/person. Not allowed to judge, but impractical because patients would call up the doctor at midnight. 46. Humanist - Denies or deemphasizes a supreme being. 47. Humanistic Psychology - deals with consciousness, values, and abstract beliefs; emphasizes an individual’s inherent drive towards self-actualization.Arose in order to deny Freud’s claims for psychoanalysis. 48. Inferiority Complex - (Proposed byAlfredAdler) an exaggerated feeling of weakness, inadequacy, helplessness. 49. Archetypes -(According to Carl Jung) vague images that have always been part of the human experience. 50. Carl Jung’s Collective unconsciousness - Belief that we have ideas and notions from birth that are results from cumulative experiences of past generations. 51. Freud’s 5 stages of psychosexual Development • Oral: birth to 1.5 YOA - sucking, swallowing, biting: dependence issues. • Anal: 1.5-3 YOA - expelling and retaining feces: stinginess or generosity. • Phallic: 3-6 YOA - touching penis or clitoris: Oedipus complex: males fear castration, females have penis envy. • Latent: 6-puberty - suppression of sexual interest • Genital: puberty - onward: sexual contact with others. 52. Personality - All the consistent ways in which behavior of one person differs from that of others, especially in social situations. 53. Rogers about human nature - People are noble when unrestrained. 54. Freud about human nature - Natural impulses are detrimental to society. 55. Rousseau about human nature - People are good, and governments are the problem. 56. Hobbes about human nature - Humans are nasty, brutish: we need government to protect ourselves from one another. 57. According to the equity principle, relationships work best if – Each person believes there is an equal exchange. 58. Milgram experiment with shocks - Many people will inflict pain if they are asked to “for science” & with authority. 59. Exchange or equity theories - We enter relationships like we enter a business deal: transactions in which partners exchange goods or services. 60. Inoculation Effect - Hearing a weak argument for or against something makes it less likely that you will be persuaded by a strong argument later. 61. Forewarning Effect - If people are aware they are about to be persuaded they harden their resistance 62. Peripheral routes of persuasion (4) • Liking and Similarity: people are more likely to be persuaded by someone they like or to whom their feel similar. • Social Norms: desire to conform • Reciprocation: free samples, etc. • Foot in Door: start with small request, bigger one later 63. Cognitive Dissonance - State of unpleasant tension that people experience when they hold contradictory attitudes or their behavior contradicts their stated opinions. People don’t like to invest in something that they don’t report liking. 64. Problems with Likert-Scale attitude assessments? • Answers tend to be dishonest • Impulsively answered • Based on most recent experience 65. Persuasion - An attempt to alter your attitudes and behavior. 66. Correspondence bias -Atendency to assume a strong similarity between someone’s current actions and his/her dispositions (inherent qualities). 67. Harold Kelley’s 3 types of Information MakingAttributions for Behavior • Consensus Information: how the person’s behavior compares with someone else’s behavior. • Consistency Information: how the person’s behavior varies from one time to the next • Distinctiveness: how the person’s behavior varies from one situation to another. 68. External attributions - Explanations based on the situation including events that presumably would influence anyone. 69. Internal attributions - Explanations based on one’s individual’s characteristics. 70. Attribution - The set of thought processes we use to assign causes to our own behavior and that of others. 71. Multiculturalism results in less tension - Having the option to talk about differences in cult
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