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Psych 101 Final Review

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Margaret Ingate

Psych Final Review Chapter 9: Intelligence What is the psychometric approach and who founded it? • It measured how well many people performed tasks such as following directions, judging musical pitch, matching colors and doing math • The performance on any one task had a positive correlation on any of the other tasks • Spearman founded this idea What is the monarchic theory of intelligence? • Spearman’s theory that there is a dominant ability or monarch (g) that is greater than lesser abilities • To perform well on any test of mental ability people need a “general ability” or (g) • Each task then requires a specific ability (s) What is fluid intelligence & who founded it? • Cattell came up with it • The power of reasoning and using information which includes the ability to perceive relationships, solve unfamiliar problems and gain new knowledge • Reaches peak at age 20; stays steady; declines in old age What is crystallized intelligence and who founded it? • Cattell • Acquired skills and knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge in specific situations • Increases with age What did Galton discover? • That people who are highly accomplished didn’t have better vision, reaction time, accuracy etc than the general public Who was Terman? • He produced the adaptation of the IQ test for US audeinces Who devised the first IQ test? • Simon and Binet What is Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences? • There are unrelated forms of intelligence • People can be outstanding in one type of intelligence but no others What is Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence? • Emphasis on three aspects of intelligence: cognitive processes, identifying situations that require intelligence and using intelligence in practical ways • These 3 types are labeled analytical (thinking critically), creative (developing new ideas), and practical (doing something) What is the difference between aptitude and achievement? • Aptitude – ability to learn, or fluid intelligence • Achievement – what someone has already learned or crystallized intelligence What was the original intended use for IQ tests? • To show a child’s mental age then measure school performance • Then later became about the ratio of mental age to chronological age How do IQ tests work? • Deviation of scores • Raw scores converted and standardized with mean of 100 and SD of 15 • Normally distributed Difference between WAIS test and WISC-IV test? • WAIS is for adults (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition) • WISC-IV is for kids What is Raven’s Progressive Matrices? • Most widely used culture reduced test • Fairer to non-English speakers • Created by John C Raven What are reliability and validity in terms of IQ tests? • Reliability is the replicability of scores and there are many ways to measure; expressed as correlation coefficients • Validity is a test that measures what it is intended to measure and there are many ways to assess; expressed as correlation coefficient What do psychologists look for when judging effectiveness of exam? • They look at internal structure of the exam, content of the test, consequences of testing • They do not look at repeatability of scores What is stereotype threat? • People’s perceived risk of performing poorly and thereby supporting an unfavorable image about their group leads them to perform poorly • Activating positive stereotypes can enhance performance What roles do heredity and environment play in intelligence test scores? • Identical twins even though reared apart are alike • Biological parents and kids are alike even if separated v
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