Psych Final Review
Chapter 9: Intelligence
What is the psychometric approach and who founded it?
• It measured how well many people performed tasks such as following directions, judging
musical pitch, matching colors and doing math
• The performance on any one task had a positive correlation on any of the other tasks
• Spearman founded this idea
What is the monarchic theory of intelligence?
• Spearman’s theory that there is a dominant ability or monarch (g) that is greater than
• To perform well on any test of mental ability people need a “general ability” or (g)
• Each task then requires a specific ability (s)
What is fluid intelligence & who founded it?
• Cattell came up with it
• The power of reasoning and using information which includes the ability to perceive
relationships, solve unfamiliar problems and gain new knowledge
• Reaches peak at age 20; stays steady; declines in old age
What is crystallized intelligence and who founded it?
• Acquired skills and knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge in specific
• Increases with age
What did Galton discover?
• That people who are highly accomplished didn’t have better vision, reaction time,
accuracy etc than the general public
Who was Terman? • He produced the adaptation of the IQ test for US audeinces
Who devised the first IQ test?
• Simon and Binet
What is Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences?
• There are unrelated forms of intelligence
• People can be outstanding in one type of intelligence but no others
What is Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence?
• Emphasis on three aspects of intelligence: cognitive processes, identifying situations that
require intelligence and using intelligence in practical ways
• These 3 types are labeled analytical (thinking critically), creative (developing new ideas),
and practical (doing something)
What is the difference between aptitude and achievement?
• Aptitude – ability to learn, or fluid intelligence
• Achievement – what someone has already learned or crystallized intelligence
What was the original intended use for IQ tests?
• To show a child’s mental age then measure school performance
• Then later became about the ratio of mental age to chronological age
How do IQ tests work?
• Deviation of scores
• Raw scores converted and standardized with mean of 100 and SD of 15
• Normally distributed
Difference between WAIS test and WISC-IV test?
• WAIS is for adults (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale Fourth Edition)
• WISC-IV is for kids
What is Raven’s Progressive Matrices? • Most widely used culture reduced test
• Fairer to non-English speakers
• Created by John C Raven
What are reliability and validity in terms of IQ tests?
• Reliability is the replicability of scores and there are many ways to measure; expressed as
• Validity is a test that measures what it is intended to measure and there are many ways to
assess; expressed as correlation coefficient
What do psychologists look for when judging effectiveness of exam?
• They look at internal structure of the exam, content of the test, consequences of testing
• They do not look at repeatability of scores
What is stereotype threat?
• People’s perceived risk of performing poorly and thereby supporting an unfavorable
image about their group leads them to perform poorly
• Activating positive stereotypes can enhance performance
What roles do heredity and environment play in intelligence test scores?
• Identical twins even though reared apart are alike
• Biological parents and kids are alike even if separated v