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01:830:310 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Amygdala, Reticular Formation, Internal Carotid Artery

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Quizzes 2,3, & 4:
1. Neuropsychology can be defined as the study of brain/behavior relationships
2. White matter is so called because of the high lipid content of the axonal myelin.
3. Multiple Sclerosis occurs in 1 in 2,000 people in the US.
4. Axons are to dendrites as shipping is to receiving.
5. Order of layers from skull to brain:
Skulldura matterarachnoid membranepia matterbrain
6. The most abundant cell type in the CNS is:
glial cell (specifically astrocytes are the most common type of glial cells in the CNS)
7.Which type of cell appears to be primarily attacked by the immune system in multiple sclerosis?
8. Your belly button is located inferior relative to your nose and ventral relative to your spine.
9. Which of the following result if the neural pores do not close properly during development?
spina bifida; anencephaly
10. Which structures in the adult human brain come from the vertebrate metencephalon?
cerebellum; pons
11. The two hemispheres of the brain are separated by the:
falx cerebri
12. Which of the following is correct?
The third ventricle is spatially associated with the thalamus
13. Cranial nerves II, III, IV and VI are the optic, oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves
14. The eighth cranial nerve is called:
The vestibulocochlear nerve
The statoacoustic nerve
The auditory-vestibular nerve
15. I. The parasympathetic nervous system originates in the cranial and sacral regions
II. The parasympathetic nervous system is the activating part of the autonomic nervous system:
only I is true
16. I. The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains efferent fibers
II. The dorsal root of a spinal nerve conveys sensory information
both are true
17. There are 8 cervical nerves, 12 thoracic nerves, 5 lumbar nerves and 5 sacral nerves
18. I. Someone with a serious spinal cord injury at the T5 level is likely quadriplegic
II. Someone with a serious spinal cord injury at the C2 level is likely (only) paraplegic
Neither is correct
19. I. Gray matter in the spinal cord is located on the periphery, like in the brain
II. White matter in the spinal cord contains both ascending and descending tracts
only II is correct
20. A young woman recovering from a blow to the head finds she has great difficulty maintaining her balance
and coordinating her movements. Injury to what part of her brain is likely to be causing her difficulties?
21. The two hemispheres of the brain are separated by the:
longitudinal fissure
22. The part of the hindbrain that is involved in vegetative functions such as breathing is known as the medulla
23. An aneurysm occurs because of:
abnormal plaque?
24. The following may result from a transient ischemic attack except: complete paralysis
(dizziness, confusion, double vision common)
25. The EEG is mostly a measure of:
subcortical neuronal firing

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26. Angiography is effective for: visualization of blood vessels
27.A DTI makes use of the following image processes. MRI
28. What is the stain that stains the entire neuron, revealing parts other than the cell body?
29. Which neuroimaging technique involves the attachment of small metal disks to the scalp in order to amplify
and record the small changes in electrical potentials?
30. What are the signs of inflammation?
31. The main difference between electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERPs) is
32. On a CT scan areas that are highly dense such as the skull will appear _________ and areas that are of lower
density such as cerebrospinal fluid and brain matter will appear ____________.
Class 1/2 – Terms, historical issues
1. What is trephination or trepanning, why is it done? What cultures was it known in?

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Ancient (Peruvian?) surgical operation that involves cutting,scraping, chiseling, or drilling a
pluglike piece of bone from the skull to relieve pressure related to brain swelling.
2. What were the two theories about the structure where behavior originates? What theory was held
by Hippocrates? Aristotle?
Hippocrates: Brain hypothesis- the brain is the source of all behavior and controls all senses
and movements.
Aristotle: Cardiac hypothesis- the heart is the source of all mental processes; because the
heart is warm and active, it is the locus of the soul.
3. What was Galen’s knowledge of anatomy based on? How did Andreas Vesalius improve upon this?
Galen’s knowledge of anatomy was based on dissecting Barbary monkeys. He claimed they
were anatomically similar to humans. (or treating gladiators?) ; studying the behavioral effects of
wounds to the brain. Believed that the physical function of the brain and body depended on the
balance of the four humors (blood=air, mucus=water, yellow bile=fire, black bile=earth). Vesalius
believed that the overall mass of the brain of humans was larger than that of animals contrary to
Galen’s belief that the size of the ventricles in humans and animals were the same. Vesalius actually
conducted dissections on humans.
4. What is phrenology and its relation to localization of function? Who were the first two men famous
for holding to localization of function?
Phrenology is the idea that one's personality could be determined by the variation of bumps on
their skull, proposed that different regions in one's brain have different functions and may very well be
associated with different behaviors.
First two men: Franz Gall & Johann Spurzheim
5. What is equipotentiality? What led Flourens to hold the view of equipotentiality of function in the
Equipotentiality = All cerebral material is equipotential; that is, if sufficient cortical material is
intact, the remaining material is intact, the remaining material will take over the functions of any
missing brain tissue. All bits of cortex can take over functions.
6. What view did Hughlings Jackson propound with respect to the organization of the nervous
Hierarchy of the nervous system. Three layers:
lower: brainstem → basic functions needed for survival (breathing).
middle: motor area → reflexes
higher: prefrontal cortex → higher cognitive functions.
7. What was Luria’s view on the organization of the nervous system?
8. What is the distinction between the central and peripheral nervous system?
CNS: contained within bone (brain contained in skull, spinal cord contained in spinal column)
PNS: not contained in bone/ outside of bone
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