01:830:340 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Twin, Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Confounding

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01:830:340
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL OVERVIEW
What can we consider what is abnormal and what isn’t. (We shouldn’t label them as “crazy”)
HISTORY
Mass hysteria emotional contagion
The Dancing Plague of 1518 Strausberg, Germany
-This woman danced for four days non-stop, then had 30
people join her, then 400 people join in.
-They were serious (some people died from heart attacks
and exhaustion)
-This was considered what we call now “mass hysteria”
-Theories of why this happened: medical issues? Etc..
-Pseudocyesis: they actually believe that they are pregnant. (상상임신) woman usually had
a baby miscarried. The person’s brain releases oxytocin, and other hormones that make the
belly bloat, have labor, but no baby.
Components for Psychological Disorder
Degree of distress e.g. sadness, fear, anxiety
Some degree of disability inability to function normally in cognitive, physical,
emotional, or behavioral areas.
Distress and disability increase the risk of further suffering, harm or death.
DSM-V (2013)
-Behavioral, psychological or biological dysfunctions that are unexpected in their
cultural context and associated with present distress and impairment in functioning, or
increased risk of suffering, death, pain, or impairment
- book that sets specific criteria for each psychological diagnosis; The categorical
approach. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) lists
possible diagnoses and the criteria for identifying each of them.
Supernatural Theory
-Odd or unusual behavior that was thought by the Catholic Church to have developed
from the work of the devil or evil spirits.
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-Epilepsy
-ADHD
-Conduct disorder
-Severe treatment methods
Trephination
- Used anciently to provide an exit for the release of evil spirits which
were thought to be tormenting the individual.
Psychological Terms:
Presenting problem what the patient comes in with .
Clinical description symptoms that the person is experiencing with
Etiology the cause of what developed
Course what does it look like throughout the years?
Prognosis the tail end “what is this person going to look like in 10 years” are they still
going to have the same disorder? (schizophrenia)
Age of Onset -
Acute or insidious slow and gradual
Prevalence rate how often do we see this disorder (how many)
Incidence rate the newest cases; “just this month, how many depression cases”
Phillie Pinel moral therapy: the way people who were treated-they were put them
away in a facility (put in chains, not good condition); Phillie pinel wanted to put them
in a better condition He talked to the patients like normal people, used empathy
Lot of these people got well and left.
Dorthea Dix,- Mental hygiene movement: During Civil war period; She worked with
congress to construct a number of facilities; she worked with lot of youth who were
insane; she set up 32 houses for nicer facilities.
Letta Hollingsworth: 1920s psychologists; worked with woman psychology,
educational psychology, clinical psychology. Differentiate mental disabilities and
mental illness.
John Lock: Renaissance man; philosopher, physician. He felt that children should be
treated more kindly (back then, they were treated like property). Kids would be better
people if they were treated fairly.
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