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01:920:101 Final: Final Study Guide_Research Methods.2

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Sergei Erofeev
Study Guide

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Milgram and Stanford experiments
- required participants to shock the learners, everytime a learner made a mistake, the
participants were required to shock the learner; voltage increased the more the more the learner
was wrong; through conducting his experiment, Milgram wanted to show how obedient
Americans were; ordinary citizens will often obey orders given by someone in position of power
or authority
Stanford (prison experiment)
- college students became prisoners or guards in a simulated prison
environment; mistreatment of prisoner escalated so alarmingly that principal investigator
terminated the experiment after only six days; the purpose of the experiment was to understand
the development of norms and the effects of roles, labels, and social expectations in a simulated
prison environment; Zimbardo concluded that behavior in prisons is influenced more by the
nature of the prison itself than by the individual characteristics of those involved
Representative and random sample
Representative sample
- a sample from a larger population that is statistically typical of that
Random sample
- a sample chosen so that every member of the population has the same
probability of being included
The value of historical analysis in sociology
When sociology began as a discipline, it was a highly theoretical field
Sociology as a discipline needed to ground its concepts and theories in facts and data
Ethical dilemma of sociological study of humans
Whether research poses risks to subjects that are greater than the risks those subjects face in
their everyday lives
The question of exploitation arises more in qualitative field studies than in quantitative research
Difference between social sciences and natural sciences
Social sciences require a more careful negotiation of the issues of influence, power, and
subjectivity than do most natural sciences (qualitative research is more prevalent in social
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