RCT 1000 Study Guide - Fall 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Sima Zhao, Interaction, Alexithymia

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RCT 1000
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Carrie Zhao
RCT 1000C 7:30-9:00AM
Chapter 1&3 Review
Chapter 1: Interpersonal Process
Why do we communicate?
We physically need communication in order to maintain a healthy life. Those who have more
satisfying relationships or more interaction tend to be healthier than those who don’t.
We learn who we are by communicating with others. We decide who we are based on how
others react of us.
o Two case studies show that children do not show “human behavior” prior to human
interaction.
Socially, communication is necessary. It allows people to create relationships.
Communication is necessary in everyday life. You need to talk to orders to convey your
feelings and opinions for work that requires collaboration and cooperation.
o Psychologist Abraham Maslow said that there’s 5 categories for human needs- physical
(water, shelter, food, etc.), safety (our well-beings has to be protected for outer forces),
social (interaction with others), self-esteem (desire to believe that we are valuable), and
self-actualization (desire to better ourselves to the maximum potential).
Communication Process
Communication is how we use messages to produce meanings.
Early models of communication were very simple. They were only one-way. One sends the
message while the other receives and interprets it.
Models now are more complicated as messages are sent back and forth and involve feedback.
The most sophisticated model is the transactional communication model. It doesn’t fully
express the process of communication but it’s the closest right now.
Sending e-mails and tests are asynchronous (delay between messages). But face-to-face
interaction is different. Both people are identified as communicators because they can be the
sender and receiver in the conversation.
The same words can have different meanings because of the tone. A phrase can be interpreted
differently.
Environment can change communication. It’s not only the physical location but also the
background (cultural, social, political) that the communicators come from. Both must have a
common ground to communicate effectively. Noise interferes with the sending and receiving
of the message. They are categorized as external, physiological (illness, hearing loss, etc.), and
psychological (cognitive factors cause interaction to be ineffective).
Channels are how the message is exchanged. A different medium conveys a different message.
A handwritten letter is different from a text.
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Communication is transactional. It means that it’s an active process where people interact with
each other. Communication is done with people, rather than to people. The coordination of the
two people interacting people causes the success of the conversation. Who you’re
communicating also affects how effective it will be.
Communication can be intentional (raising your hand to say something) or unintentional
(someone hears your mutters). Even doing nothing shows something.
Remember that once you say something, you can’t take it back nor can you repeat it again!
There’s a content dimension (what you’re actually talking about) and relational dimension
(how you feel about the person your communicating to).
You can determine what type of relationship you have (highly interpersonal or impersonal) by
4 characteristics.
o Uniqueness: In impersonal relationships, you follow the social norms and exchange
pleasantries. But in close relationships, you know each other well and communicate
accordingly to partner.
o Interdependence: You feel empathy for events in someone else’s lives.
o Self-disclosure: We show more of ourselves and reveal secrets.
o Intrinsic rewards: In impersonal relationships, the drive is from extrinsic motivations.
While in interpersonal relationships, just talking to each other is the reason itself.
There are some misconceptions about communication:
o All communication tries to find full understanding.
o More communication is always better.
o Communication can solve all problems.
o You are born with ability to effectively communicate.
Communication Competence
Competent communication involves both effectiveness and appropriateness.
There’s no way of correct communication. Interactions between people vary. There should also
be flexibility between people with different backgrounds. Growing up with different customs
and social norms, acts can be rude or acceptable.
Your degree of competence varies in every situation. You can also learn how to be competent
since it is a set of skills anyone can learn.
There are many characteristics of competent communication:
o Large repertoire of skills (many ways to say the same thing)
o Ability to choose the right way to communicate in a situation
o Ability to effectively communicate
o High level of concern for the person or topic they’re discussing
o Understanding someone’s situation and being able to empathize
o Cognitive complexity (ability to think of different frameworks of looking at a situation)
o Self-monitoring (looking at how you’re communicating and making changes to
yourself)
Communication competence can be disturbed by communication apprehension (when you feel
anxiety during unfamiliar and complicated situations).
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