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BIO 321 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Genotype, Zygosity, Locus (Genetics)


Department
Biology
Course Code
BIO 321
Professor
John True
Study Guide
Final

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BIO 321

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BIO 321/BEE 577- Ecological Genetics
TuTh 2:30 - 3:50 Javits 109
Prof. True (Office Hour MF 1-2, Life Sciences 114)
TA: Tianyu Li (TuTh 12 - 2, Life Sciences 606)
Lecture 1- 08/28/2018
E.B. Ford, The Founder of Ecological Genetics
Lepidopterist, naturalist
Spent virtually entire career at Oxford
Eetri
Industrial melanism in Biston betularia was his major focus- studied many butterfly and moth species
Worked with RA Fisher on many evolutionary genetic concepts
Also interacted with TH Dobzhansky
With Fisher helped to estalish the eai o eeti polyorphis
Proposed that polymorphisms in nature were involved with very strong selection on alleles in
particular circumstances
Proposed that human blood group polymorphism may be involved in resistance to disease
ABO and Rh factor are two of 33 known human blood group polymorphisms
In the other 31, variants are rare but may cause transfusion complications
Terms
Definition of fitness:
the survival + reproductive success of an individual (can be defined over >1 generation and often
use fitness proxies- traits that are positively correlated with fitness)
Definition of Ecology:
Back in the day: how organisms live in nature (this has become physiological and behavioral
ecology)
These days- the distribution of species and communities across space and time in the environment
Ecologically important traits = traits important for fitness
Evolution- is both a pattern (observed change through time) and process (we can often infer that traits
change because their underlying development has evolved)
What makes change evolution
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BIO 321/BEE 577- Ecological Genetics
TuTh 2:30 - 3:50 Javits 109
Prof. True (Office Hour MF 1-2, Life Sciences 114)
TA: Tianyu Li (TuTh 12 - 2, Life Sciences 606)
Genetically determined trait- heredity
Phenotypic Evolution
A change in a phenotypic trait due to genetic change from one generation to the next over multiple
generations
Population genetic definition of evolution: a change in allele frequency in a population from one
generation to the next
4 processes can cause this: mutation, genetic drift, migration, and natural (and sexual) selection - closely
related to ecology
If you know this was a case of evolution (genetic change), is it natural selection? - Nope, it is genetic drift
If we have evidence that natural selection caused this, it is adaptation
Adaptation
Phenotypic trait that increases fitness in an environment
Brood Parasitism: organisms that rely on others to raise their young
The others do’t uderstad that the hild is ot theirs
Of the 4 causal processes listed above: mutation, genetic drift, migration, and natural (sexual) selection
Only the natural selection can cause adaptation
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