ADV Study Guide 3

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ADV 208
James Tsao

ADV 206 Study List for Exam 3 Chapter 7, 10-14 Chapter 7: Introductory scenario: • Boom in research departments in the 50s since agencies could afford it • Pepsi more preferred than Coke after conducting tests so Coke made new formula • Customers preferred old Coke than new Coke, got upset and demanded it back o Cultural reality of a brand  people drink the brand not the product (cultural meaning) o Advertising turns products into brands Bill Bernbach (responsible for VW in 60’s) – thinks advertising research is wasteful because it does not factor in real issues and realities about brands o Advertising and brand promotion research is any research that helps in the developments, execution, or evaluation of advertising and promotion. Stage 1: Developmental advertising and IBP research • Understand what consumer insight means. Also understand the differences between consumer insight and facts (covered in my lecture). • Explain these research methods such as o Design thinking – a new way of looking at the integration of research and product development; finding a way into advertising and brand promotion as well. o Concept testing – seeks feedback designed to screen the quality of a new idea, using consumers as the judge and the jury; how does a product fit current needs and how much consumers are willing to pay for the new product o Audience profiling – Creatives need to know as much as they can about the people whom their ads will speak  Lifestyle research (AIO) – survey data from csonuemrs who have answered questions about themselves o Focus groups – a discussion session with six to 10 target consumers who have been brought together to come up with new insights about the good or service o Projective techniques – designed to allow customers to project their thoughts, but mostly feelings onto a blank or neutral surface like an inkblot onto benign painting or scene.  Dialogue balloons: fill in dialogue of cartoonlike stories that have to do with a product  Story construction: tell a story about people depicted in a scene or picture  Sentence and picture completion: researcher presents consumers with part of a picture or sentence with words deleted and then asks that the stimulus be completed  Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET): draw out peoples buried thoughts and emotions about about products and brands by encouraging participants to think in terms of metaphors  collection of photographs and magazines to reflect their experiences o Fieldwork – conducted outside the agency usually in the home or site of consumption; learn from the experiences of consumers and from direct observation. Consumption practices are embedded or tightly connected to their social context. o Mining the web (spyware) – software designed to let companies know where you go on their site, what you do when you are there, where else you go , with whom you share this information and presumably with what result. Stage 2: Copy research or evaluative research – research on the actual ads or promotional texts themselves, finished or unfinished • Communication test – seeks to discover whether a message is communication something close to what the advertiser desired; done in a group setting with data coming from a combination of pencil-and-paper questionnaires and group discussion.  helps prevent communicating something very wrong and creating disasters • Thought listing – also cognitive research analysis, are tests of knowledge, cognitive residue, and feelings and emotions; conducted in-house or obtained from a commercial testing service. o Interested in the thoughts that an ad or promotion generates in the mind of the audience; obtained by having individuals watch the commercial in groups and asking them to write down all the thoughts that were in their minds while they were watching at the end • Recall Tests – most commonly employed tests in advertising and most controversial; used to get the cognitive residue of ads o Find out just how much the viewer of an ad remembers of the message o Television: Ipsos-ASI and Burke; Print: Gallup & Robinson and Burke o Recognition – means that the audiences members indicated that they have seen the ad before whereas recall requires more actual memory (recall for TV and recognition for print) • Recognition Tests – standard memory tests for print ads and promotions; ask you to recognize something in an ad or the ad, not recall something about it. • Implicit Memory Measures – do not refer back to the ad or exposure but try to get at memory by using tasks like word fragments, like part of a brand name. • Surveys – consumers are aksed to answer questions about the advertised brand after the commercial • Atittude study - measuers consumer attitudes after exposure to an ad • Resonance tests – the goal is to determine to what extent the message resonates or rings true with target-audience members • Frame-by-Frame - usually employed for ads where the emotional component is key, although they may also be used to obtain thought listing as well. • Physiological assessment – how the human mind actually processes advertisements (MRI) • Eye Tracking – systems that have been used to help monitor eye movements across print ads • Behavioral intent – what consumers they intend to do • Again, study different research methods and learn the usage of different methods under various circumstances. For example, what research information can be provided by the method of “thought listing”, recall tests, recognition tests, Starch Readership tests, implicit memory measures, resonance tests, frame-by-frame tests, and eye-tracking system? (This question is also applied to the methods listed in Stage 1.) Stage 3: Results: • Tracking Studies Method – most commonly used advertising and promotion research methods; track the apparent effect of advertising and branded entertainment over time. o Asses the attitude change, knowledge, behavioral intent, and self-reported behavior, before, during, or after the launch of an advertising campaign or branded entertainment  use of survey • Direct Response Method – advertisements in print, the Internet, and broadcast media offer the audience the opportunity to place an inquiry or respond directly through a website, reply card, or toll-free phone number (inquiry/direct response measures) • All-in-One Single-Source Data Method – Introduction of UPC’s (universal product codes) enables firms to document the behavior of individuals/households about brand purchases, coupon use, and television advertising exposure by combining grocery store scanner data with TV viewing data from monitoring devices  best known supplier for this is IRI BehaviorScan • Estimating Sales Derived fromAdvertising – Isolate the effect of promotion and the affect of advertising on sales. Require time, data, and expertise that many companies do not have at their disposal, so this is rare. o Advertising has greatest impact early in product life cycle *Account Planning VS.Advertising Research o Agencies assign an account manager to work cooperatively with the account executive on a given clients business rather than depending on a separate research departments occasional involvement. o Research is put in a more different and prominent role. Researchers (or planners) seem to be more actively involved throughout the entire process and have a bigger impact o Planning agencies tend to do more qualitative and naturalistic research than their more traditional counterparts o Account planning system means that a researcher will always be a part of the team, and it is cheaper than a whole staff of researchers Questions and key terms Chapter 10: 1. Advantages of simple repetition strategy? What brands use them? a. Lots of ads purchased to constantly repeat the brand name and within the ads themselves  brand can be recalled from memory so they are more likely to end up in a shopping cart i. Positives: Resistant to forgetting, efficient for consumer ii. Negatives: long term commitment/expense, competitive inference, creative resistance b. Typically a strategy for television and radio, sometimes print c. Geico, Kibbles and Bits, Meow Mix, arenas named after companies 2. Under what circumstances would it be relatively tough to successfully link on attribute to a brand name and thereby increase sales? 3. What has to happen for “Reason WhyAds” to work? a. The ad points out to the consumer that there are good reasons why this brand will be satisfying and beneficial b. Customers like to make their own conclusions, so a good reason why ad will give reasons but let the consumer actually make the conclusion that the brand is the best c. Making sure the reasons make sense and that consumers actually care i. Price advertising and value ii. Act now ads, “hard sell” 4. Explain the difference between brand recall and affective association as message objectives. a. Brand Recall is making a consumer remember the brand through their consistency; it is believed that the more it is remembered than the more likely it will be purchased; use of repetition and memory aids b. Affective association works at getting the consumer to feel good about the brand by showing happy messages that don’t necessarily define the way the company/brand works  very positive 5. Does sex sell? Explain. a. No, because sex doesn’t actually make someone buy something. But, it appeals to people’s attention and will affect how the consumer feels about a product.  It helps create brand imagery 6. Review the do’s and don’ts of comparison advertising and then think about each of the brand pairs listed, comment on whether you think comparison ads would be a good choice for the product category in questions, and which brand in the pair would be n the more appropriate position to use comparisons: Coors Light versus Bud Light, Nuprin versus Tylenol pain reliever, Wendy’s versus McDonald’s hamburgers 7. Is social anxiety advertising generally effective? Why? a. Known as the P&G approach due to Proctor and Gamble’s use of it b. It does work because they instill fear in their consumers and then tell them how to feel better about their problems; point out anxieties on the surface such as fixing dandruff, being a good parent, proper cleaning items 8. Do you think product placement and short Internet films are effective in executing the message strategy of situating the brand socially? What are major advantages? a. Yes, people who are engaged in entertaining content will subliminally capture the brand b. People also create attachments to the pop-culture icons who are using the products and feel closer to being like them by doing what they do c. Strong with low-involvement goods much less with bigger items 9. 10 Message strategy objectives: a. Promote brand recall, link key attributes to the brand name, persuade the consumer, affective association (get the consumer to feel good about the brand), scare the consumer into action, change behavior by including anxiety, define the brand image, give the brand the desired social meaning, leverage social disruption and cultural contradictions, transform consumption experiences. Chapter 11: 1. Who are the main participants in the “creative team” when it comes to copywriting, art direction, and production? What “roadmap” do they use to guide the creative effort? Creative team: ­ Media Planner ­ Account Planner ­ Copywriter ­ Art director They are driven by the creative brief 2. Compare and contrast the dialogue and narrative formats for television ads. What common requirements must be met to construct convincing TV ads using these two formats? ­ Use the video ­ Support the video ­ Coordinate the audio with the video ­ Sell the brand as well as entertain the audience ­ Be flexible ­ Use copy judiciously ­ Reflect the brand personality and image ­ Build campaigns 3. Entertainment is both the blessing and the curse of a copywriter. Is it conceivable that ads that merely entertain could actually prove valuable in stimulating sales? If so, how so? ** Talk about** 4. Describe the common mistakes that copywriters must avoid. From your personal experience with all types of ads, are there other common mistakes that you believe copywriters are prone to make on a regular basis? ­ Vagueness ­ Wordiness ­ Triteness ­ Bad taste ­ Laundry lists ­ Creativity for creativity’s sake 5. Copywriters often are asked to develop slogans for a product or service. What role does an effective slogan play in promoting a brand’s image and personality? Write a new slogan for 3 brands in Exhibit 11.16 (p. 388) Slogans are used to increase memorability of the key benefit of a brand Slogans… 1. Can be an integral part of a brand’s image an personality a. BMW: “The Ultimate Driving Machine” 2. It can act as shorthand identification for the brand and provide information on important brand benefits 3. Provide continuity across different media and between advertising campaigns a. Nike’s “Just Do It” gave the company an underlying theme for a wide range of campaigns 6. Identify the strategic roles that illustration plays in increasing the effectiveness of a print advertisement from a communications and marketing perspective. Purpose of illustration: ­ To attract the attention of the target audience ­ To make the brand heroic (using visual techniques) ­ To communicate brand features or benefits (show the product/ before and after shots) ­ To create a mood, feeling, or image (color tones, highlighting) ­ To stimulate reading of the body copy ­ To create the desired social context for the brand 7. This chapter reviewed 5 basic principles for print ad design: balance, proportion, order, unity, and emphasis. Give an example of how each of these principles might be employed to enhance the selling message of a print ad. Balance: Formal—emphasizes symmetrical presentation—creates a mood of seriousness and directness Informal—emphasizes asymmetry—visually intriguing presentation to the viewer Proportion: Unequal dimensions and distances make for some of the liveliest designs in advertising Consider… spacing between elements, depth, size of elements in relation to each other, amounts of light and dark areas Order: Establish a relationship among the elements that leads the reader through the ad in some controlled fashion Unity: Tie the elements together and make them appear related 3-point layout structure: established 3 elements in the ad as dominant forces Parallel layout structure: art on the right and left hand side of the page Emphasis: Emphasize one item that is the primary but not the only focus in the ad 8. Digital/interactive media present a new and unique challenge for both the copywriting and art direction processes. When you visit a website, does it seem like there is a “copy” or “design” at the site? What about when you use your favorite social networking sites? Do Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube show evidence of persuasive copy or design principles? 9. Identify the creative guidelines for developing television advertising. Think of an ad you have seen that does a particularly good job of employing items listed in the guidelines. Think of an ad that does not. Which one do you like better? ­ Use an attention-getting and relevant opening ­ Emphasize the visual ­ Coordinate the audio with the visual ­ Persuade as well as entertain ­ Show the brand 10. Identify the 3 main stages of the production process for television advertising. Describe the activities that take place within each stage. Preproduction: The advertiser and advertising agency carefully work out the precise details of how the creative planning behind an ad can best be brought to life with the opportunities offered by television Storyboard and script approval▯Budget approval▯Assessment of directors, editorial houses, and music suppliers▯Review of bids from production houses and other suppliers▯Creation of a production timeline▯Selection of location, sets, and cast Production: The storyboard and script come to life and are filmed Setting up lighting and rehearsing may take a whole day Postproduction: Director’s rough-cut Digital editing Audio editing Master, dubs, and distribution Chapter 12: What are those “Very Important Changes” in media planning? o Agency compensation – no longer using commission model, in its place are individually negotiated deals (fee based model) o Media planning and buying is outsourced o More Media – the internet cost promotions, product placement, viral/buzz marketing, movies that are feature length commercials o Line between PR and advertising has become a blur – companies are using news stories as part of their IBP efforts o Earned media as opposed to paid media o Social media is growing o Going Public o Much more stock holder pressure for short term profitability o Ad world greatest ways to have short term profitability: fire staff and make more money on fees and media buys o Push in the direction of higher return media buys and deals o Agency profit margins are thin; fewer people do more work for less money o Globalization – companies are paying attention to Brazil, Russia, India, and China which have huge emerging consumer markets o Pricing and buying media around the globe is complicated, typically foreign agencies partner with local ones o Free Content – the flood of free media content due to the internet; other telecommunications changes; making traditional ad supported paid media vehicles an increasingly endangered species; advertising are putting more of their promotional budget into non-traditional media which contemporary users enjoy and use more (some of this content is consumer generated) o Hyper clutter and ad avoidance – consumers have the choice to watch ad free premium channels, such as HBO; pop-up ad filters on the Internet  people will pay to avoid ads o To survive and prosper in the new media world you have to figure out how to not be avoided o Multi-cultural media – in the US most attention is on the Hispanic/Latino market due to its size and growth rate o New media and demography allow more diversity and demand more ad languages o Consumer – the days of the marketer as the sole brand image creator are over o Brand and brands communication are now meaningfully co-created o E-commerce has given consumers increasingly more power in the marketing channel o Consumers have become prone to seek deals There are a number of important terms in media planning you should be familiar with. Know the differences of the terms including • Single-source tracking services – offer information on demographics, brands, purchase size and frequency, prices paid, media exposure o BehaviorScan • Geo-targeting – the placement of ads in geographic regions where higher purchase tendencies for a brand are evident • Frequency and effective frequency – freque
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