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Exam 2 Review.docx

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COM 107

Libertarian Theory, Social Responsibility Theory & Free Speech • John Milton o Opposed censorship o Wanted free speech and expression • Licensing, Censorship, Prior Restraint o Authoritarian Theory= printing press times, the general public needs guidance from the elite educated, news controlled by private enterprise o Prior restraint= you cannot block it until it comes out o Censorship= government restraint o Licensing= government required you to have an approved permit beforehand • Theories of Press and the Press’Relationship with the Government o Libertarian Theory= all ideas even false ones deserve to circulate, people should have access to any info, the truth will eventually emerge from clash of ideas  Gives publishers the freedom to do what they want  To combat speech you don’t like, more speech  Democracy is successful by active free press  Awful stuff should be available o First Amendment SeditionAct= Congress shall make no law that prohibits free religion, free speech, free press, the right to assemble, the right to petition the government o Social Responsibility Theory= media should operate in the public interest, act on a check on abuse by government and powerful institutions  Be inclusive to all citizens  Distribute unpopular but important content (ex. European news) and refrain from harmful and exploitive content • War Propaganda o Radio Act of 1927/Communications Act of 1934  PICAN= Public, Interest, Convenience and Necessity o Hays Office 1934  Respect for every nation, race, religion  Church hoped to reign in immoral things  “Don’ts and be carefuls”  Motion Picture Production Code o Section315= during elections, broadcasts must give equal time to candidates o War of Worlds Broadcast  Made it sound like breaking news o Hutchins Commission 1947  Criticized big media as too powerful and ignoring needs of the whole community  Recommended press act as the 4 estate • 3 branches, who checks on them…the press! o Communist Theory= government controlled news, • Libel and NYT vs. Sullivan 1964 o To prove libel you must show  Public statement is false  Damages occurred  Publisher was negligent o Public figures cant really show libel so they must show actual malice, have a higher standard  Knew the statement was false and published it anyway, acted reckless • Obscenity and Miller vs. California 1973 o Obscenity only interest is lust o Community standards, whole work lacks value o Lacks scientific, artistic, educational and political value  How do you define community standards  “Variable obscenity”= permissible for adults not minors o Different communities and regions have different views • Indecency o Government has the right to control, not ban o Safe harbor times when indecent programming is not supposed to air o Liquor ads after 10 pm • MPAArating system o Not government imposed, industry imposed • Pentagon Papers= Vietnam Policy Papers stolen and leaked to NYT and WP o Court sides with Times • Progressive Magazine= article on nuclear weapons • Seditious Expression= during times of war, there was no speech that has dissenting opinion • Gag orders and shield laws o Gag= restrictions on lawyers and witnesses  Ensures fair trial on heavily public cases o Shield= protects confidentiality of sources who gave info  Keeps reporters credibility • Print v. Broadcast o Print was regulated but broadcast wasn’t • Fairness doctrine requires stations to… o 1. To air and engage in controversial issue programs that effected their communities o 2. To provide competing points of view when offering such programming • Qualified privilege= allows reporting on judicial or legislative proceedings even though public statements, even if defamatory in nature Journalism • Journalism v. News o J: process by which citizens are presented the info needed to make good decisions in a democracy o N: PRODUCT o News factors  Timeliness  Impact TIPPCHD  Prominence  Proximity  Conflict  Human Interest  Deviance from the norm • Normative model: attempt to present info as objectively as possible (no bias) o Journalists should be fair, independent and accurate  Must have credibility with audience • 1. Seek out expert sources • 2. Rely on official sources and documents • 3. Seek out two sides to a story  Credibility has been attacked, giving too much play, language used  Problem: Bias in the eye of the beholder • Selective perception: we see things the way we support them • Elite cue taking: taking cues from elites they agree with • Hostile media bias: people say media is hostile when covering their side but objective when covering the other side o Advocacy journalism: abandons objectivity and presents info from a perspective • News routines produce a pattern of “news” • Gatekeeping: process of deciding what is news • Agenda Setting o Media don’t tell us what to think, they tell us what to think about o McCombs and Shaw  Media agenda  audience agenda • Topics covered prominently by press= topics seen as important by people • Topics ignored by press= topics seen as unimportant by people • Framing= which narratives or aspects of a story get prominence and which get ignored o “Branding” a topic o “Estate tax” v. “death tax” o Iyengar 1991, frames howAmericans understand an issue  Episodic (focuses on the individual) vs. thematic frames • Pressures on Journalists o Competition  The bottom line  Scoop better coverage  not yet best • Scoop= good and different story, getting the story first o Excessive competition, Sandy Hook, media ethics • Better coverage= more footage, interviews, facts, depth, creative  Scariest thing is that everyone but you covered the story  “Pack” journalism= journalists practice in a group o Relationship  Sources • Watchdog v relationship  Audience • Active partici
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