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COM 107

COMMUNICATION & CULTURE Linear Model of Communication • SENDER  encoding  MESSAGE (SYMBOLS) decoding  RECIEVER FEEDBACK • Encoding= translating ideas into symbols • Decoding= constructing meaning from symbols • Messages go through a mass media channel o Gatekeepers filter Culture as a Skyscraper vs. Map • Culture as hierarchy o High culture= ballet, symphony, art museums o Low culture= reality tv, rock music, video games • Culture as ongoing, complicated process o Conventional, familiar, and comforting paths o We produce meaning o Cities where many people congregate, villages where few people go Modern vs. Postmodern th • MODERN= Beginning of Industrial Revolution and stretching to mid 20 century o Efficiency  Manufacturing centers, inexpensive product o Individualism o Rationalism o Progress  Progressive era, political and social reform • POSTMODERN= 1950s- present o Populism  Appeals to ordinary people but creating conflict between the elite  Anti-hierarchy, skepticism o Diversity  Ex. Food court in malls, Italian, Japanese, american o Nostalgia  Vampires, Lost, witches o Paradox  Retro beliefs and contemporary culture Television Use & Free Time • Still dominant storyteller • What determines how much TV you watch? Free time • 99% of US households have a TV Uses and Gratifications Approach • Assumptions o People are aware of their needs o People are active media consumers • Reasons for watching TV o Surveillance (need for info) o Social Utility (connecting)  Conversational currency • Something to talk about with people  Parasocial relationships • Feeling a relationship with the characters  Media allusions o Identifying formation and expression (music for teens) o Buffering (mood management) o Diversion (entertainment) Mass Media & Mass Communication • Mass media channels o Newspapers, books, magazines, radio, TV, internet • Cultural model o Individuals bring diverse meaning to messages • Selective exposure= consumers shaping media messages to fit or support their own values or viewpoints • Social media has eliminated the gatekeeper role • Media convergence= all the changes that have occurred over the past decade in media content and within media companies o New technology o Cross plat forming  Bunch of media under one umbrella • Media literacy= attaining an understanding of mass media and how they construct meaning o Critical process  Description, analysis interpretation, evaluation, engagement INTERNET, MOBILE & NEW MEDIA HISTORY Distributed Network Design • Like a netting • No nerve centers, if any connection is severed, information can be immediately rerouted Wargames • Introduces network security concerns to the public • ARPAnet= original internet, communicated military and researchers together (1960s) • 1983 split into a civilian use Convergence • All media under one umbrella o Mobile o Social o Geo HTML • Tim Berners Lee created HTML (1989) • Hyper Text Markup Language • Data mining= consumer surveillance, location, purchasing habits • Digital divide= growing contrast between the “information haves” and “information have nots” o Those who can afford a computer and those who cannot • Moving toward Web 3.0= “semantic web”, info gathered automatically, base on meaning and associations o Pandora • Web 1.0= static • Web 2.0= broadband, faster processors, fiber optics, convergence • Geolocation= links to physical space o Augmented reality  Adding info to physical space MEDIA IN A COMMERCIAL SYSTEM Monopoly vs. Oligopoly • Anti trust laws designed to prevent monopoly o Buying sprees by major media conglomerates • Oligopoly= several companies who run the industry o Auto industry, air lines • 1996 Telecommunicatons Act o Very deregulatory o Removed limits on radio  No limit on # of total stations • Can own up to 8 in one market (ex. NYC) o Removed limits on TV stations  Broadcast stations can reach no more than 40% of nations TV homes Disney • Online • Media networks • Parks/resorts • Film/studios • Consumer product Media & Profit • Directly= selling content to consumer • Indirectly= advertising Old vs. New Business Models • Old: bundling, put ads in front of people, hoping some will follow through o You never know what is working o Wanamaker quote about “half my ad dollar is wasted…” o Audience buys the bundle, which is content + ads o Large audience • New: placement i
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