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Syracuse University
Health and Wellness
HTW 221

• Psychoactive drug: taken for mind altering and mood altering effects • Intoxication: state that occurs when the amount of a substance reaches toxic levels in the body • Elicit drugs: Drugs, which are under international control, but are produced, trafficked, and/or consumed illicitly. Narcotics, stimulants, depressants, hallucinogens, and cannabis • Drug Use: commonly taken for medicinal purposes • Drugs Misuse: temporary and improper use of a legal drug • DrugAbuse: intentional improper or nonmedical use of a drug. Negatively affects the health and well-being of the user • Poly abuse: user combines different drugs to get desired effects • Addiction: continued repetition of a behavior despite adverse consequences, or a neurological impairment leading to such behaviors • Dependence: state of relying on or needing something for aid, support, or the like • Tolerance: body’s adaptation to increasing doses of a drug • Withdrawal: temporary physical and psychological state that occurs when certain drugs are withdrawn • Relapse: to fall or slip back into a former state, practice, etc. • Recovery: restoration or return to health from sickness • Pleasure and reward circuit: When the cortex has received and processed a sensory stimulus indicating a reward, it sends a signal announcing this reward to a particular part of the midbrain–the ventral tegmental area (VTA)–whose activity then increases. The VTA then releases dopamine not only into the nucleus accumbens, but also into the septum, the amygdala, and the prefrontal cortex. • Stimulants: enhance chemical activity in parts of the brain that influence emotions, sleep, attention, and learning. Increase blood pressure levels and heart rates. Caffeine, cocaine, methamphetamine, Ritalin. • Depressants: slow the activity of cerebral cortex of the brain, producing sedative and hypnotic effects and drowsiness. Slow heart and respiratory rates. Can be prescribed to treat insomnia and mild anxiety.Alcohol, valium, roofies (rohypnol) • Narcotics: drugs that relieve pain, induce sleep • Environmental tobacco smoke: refers to exposure to tobacco smoke from being exposed to some else’s smoke.Also the material in indoor air that originates from tobacco smoke. • Leading Health Indicators related to substance use and abuse: adolescents using alcohol or drugs & adults engaging in binge drinking • Gender and age difference in substance abuse: more males than females abuse prescription drugs in all age groups except 12-17. Females 12-17 are more likely to meet abuse or dependence.Ages 18-25 most likely to use and abuse • Effects of Nicotine: • Factors that contribute to the effects of a drug: • Addiction as a brain disease: dependent individuals are unable to avoid using drugs and most have a history of unsuccessful attempts to stop. Overtime, dependent people escalate drug use. Dependence is a habitual pattern of drug-taking that produces a compulsive need to use substances • Role of neurotransmitters in substance abuse: • Four methods of drug administration: smoking, injecting, snorting, swallowing, inhaling • Smoking: fastest way to get a drug to the brain • Injecting: 2 fastest way- longer-lasting effect • Snorting: 3 fastest way- longer lasting effect • Ingestion: slowest mode of delivery- longer-lasting effect • Opiates: heroin, morphine, codeine • Communicable disease: illness due to a specific communicable agent or its toxic products, which arises through transmission of that agent or its products from an infected person, animal, or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host • Chain of Infection: pathogen, reservoir, portal of exit, transmission, portal of entry, and establishment of infection in new host • Pathogen: antibiotics, antivirals, disinfectants, etc. • Human reservoir: isolation, surveillance, quarantine, drug treatment • Porta
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