Protest, Revolution, and Civil War
Civil War = a conﬂict between organized groups within a nation-state (mostly labeled when
battle deaths reach 1000)!
Contentious Politics = domestic conﬂicts that do not rise to the level of civil war !
Diﬀusion = the spread of protest and tactics through the process of observation and copying!
Intervention = the involvement of outside actors in contentious politics or civil war!
Conﬂict Spillover = the spread of a domestic conﬂict across state borders!
Hegemonic wars - wars contested to determine who will be the dominant state in the system!
Third wave of democratization - the series of transitions from autocracy to democracy that
began with a democratic revolution in Portugal in 1974!
Zone of peace - a group of democratic states !
Causes of Civil War!
-international war may strengthen the victor, but civil war always weakens the state!
Grievances (look at the reasons people rebel)
-Political -> seeking to overthrow the government or force it to reform!
-Economics -> seeking to force the government to adopt diﬀerent economic policies or to
address an Economic grievence!
-Territorial autonomy or indepence !
-Ethnicity and religion !
*Can be combined reasons!
Grievances may not be a good explanation for civil war!
There is an argument that people are most likely to rebel when their level of death departs
signiﬁcantly from their expectations!
-focus on economic factors as a source of conﬂict/constraint on state’s ability to resist
-can have signiﬁcant impactions of international dimensions!
-How come some protests start small and grow into movements that force states to change
course, while others disappear?!
-Politcal opportunity structure aka the constraints/opportunities that a movement faces!
-Particular salient events can make it easier to rally people around a cause!
-technology is having a huge impact, both for good and bad ( to spread the word, or to
control access to the internet, etc)!
THE HISTORY CONNECTION - Religion, history, and oil in Iraq’s Insurgency\