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PSY 205 test 1.docx

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PSY 205

• Psychology: two Greek words “Psyche and logos” • Psyche: Soul • Logos: Study of a subject • Psychology: study of behavior of living organisms • Plato: idealism (reality is the mind) • Aristotle: empiricism • William Wundt: Leipzig Germany- the mind body problem “father of psychology” (1879) • Psychophysics: scale in the mind • Goal of psychology: to discover content of the mind. • Technique: introspection • Structuralism: Edward B. Titchener • Content of the mind- thoughts and sensations • Structuralism: Analyze fundamental components conscious experience, sensations, feelings, images • Functionalism: William James • Goal: function of the mind hypnosis. Study function/purpose consciousness, rather than its structures • Edward Thorndike: Puzzle box, law of effect • Ivan Pavlov: Classical conditioning • Related overt behaviors to observable events in environment • Behaviorism: John Watson • The mind is not an organ • Psychology should only study observable behavior • Gestalt Psychology: Max Wertheimer • The motion picture • Phi-phenomenon: events that follow • Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud. • Believed our unconscious greatly influences our behavior • Psychoanalytic theory: attempt, explain personality, motivation, mental disorder by focusing on the unconscious • Psychology as a profession: clinical, experimental, developmental, counseling, educational, school, psychometrics • Biopsychology: believed the soul is the brain • Cogitoergo sum • Pineal gland: Nonphysical soul interacts w/ physical body • Scientific Method: Formulate testable hypothesis, select research method +design study, collect data, analyze data +draw conclusions , report findings • Data collection techniques: • Direct observation: observers trained watch +record behavior • Questionnaire: subjects administered series written questions designed obtain info • Interview: face to face dialogue conducted obtain info • Psychological test: participants administered standardized measure to obtain sample of their behavior • Physiological recording: instrument used monitor +record specific physiological process • Examination of archival records: researcher analyzes existing institutional records • Experiment: Manipulation one variable under controlled conditions (cause +effect) • Variable: measurable condition/characteristic • Independent: changing • Dependent: after/results • Population: entire group you’re interested in • Sample: subset of population • Experimental group: receive treatment • Control group: no treatment • Random assignment: all participant equal chance assign manipulate indep variable for 1 group • T-test: whether mean of treatment group was significantly different from means of control group • Extraneous/Compounding variable: any variable other than indep variable can affect results study • Complex communication network: how body/brain communicate. Regulates bodily functions +activates • Nervous system tissue: neurons +glia • Neurons: communication cells • Sensory neurons: direct external impulses inward to CNS be processed • Motor neurons: project axons out from CNS control muscles • Interneurons: connect sensory +motor neurons • Dendrites: receive info • Soma: Cell body • Axon: transmits info to other neurons • Myelin sheath: insulates axon • Terminal button: end of axon, secretes neurotransmitter • Synapse: junction info sent neuron to another • Julien Offray de la Mettrie: to understand the mind study the brain • Biopsy: building blocks of the nervous system • 7Acethylcholine: memory • Noradrenaline: activate organs • Dopamine: flow of info • Serotonin: eating, temp control • GABA: most important, focus • Somatic: activate muscles • Autonomic: control organs • CNS: spinal cord +brain • Phantom limb: only real thing is what happens in your brain • Consential validation: everyone agrees • Model of sensory communication • Energy transducer: encoding/decoding • Stimulus receptor: neuron/brain • E M Wave: eye optic nerve occipital lobe • Receptor Cells: • Resting potential: receptor potential • Action potential: generator potential • Receptor neuron: Brain • Receptor cell membrane: differential sensitivity • Intensity: frequency +relative frequency of nerve activity • Quality: anatomical encoding: hear the light and see the sound • E.M. Wave: eye optic nerve optical lobe • Pupil: middle • Iris: outside pupil • Sclera: white part • Rods: more sensitive • Cones: more accurate • Bipolar cells: connect them to the ganglion cell • Perception: there is more to seeing that meets the eye- Gestalt Psychology • Interneuron: connector • Sensory: message to brain • Acetylcholine: control muscles • Dopamine: pleasurable emotions • Norepinephrine: Mood +arousal • Seratonin: regulates sleep/wakefulness • GABA: anxiety • Glutamine: learning/memory • Endorphins: pain relief +pleasurable emotions • Neuron’s resting potential: negative charge when cell not active (70 millivolts) • Action potential: neuron becomes less negative • Absolute Refractory Period: down time • Synapse: synaptic cleft, post synaptic neuron, neurotransmitter binds post synaptic potential, exhibitory , inhibitory PSP • CNS: • Brain • Spinal Cord • Peripheral Nervous System: • Somatic: voluntary muscles +sensory receptors • Autonomic: auto/invol functions • Symathetic: GO • Parasympathetic: STOP • Afferent pathways: CNS • Efferent pathways: Away from CNS • Brain lesions: damage to specific area • Brain research technology: • CT: brain structure • PET: structure & function • MRI: structure (better imaging) • FMRI: function (areas of high activity) • Hind brain: vital functions (oldest) • Mid: sensory functions • Fore: emotion, complex thought (newest) • Hindbrain: • Medulla: vital functions, unconscious • Pons: bridge connects brain steam> cerebellum (sleep +arousal) • Cerebellum: li
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