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PSY 315- Crib Sheets Exam 3

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PSY 315

CRIB SHEET NOTES FOR EXAM THREEChapter 10 Drug Classification1 NameA Chemical Name it is derived from organic chemistry describes the molecule this is not a standardized system however and several terminologies are in use B Generic Name the official legal name of the drug used by the public it is the nonproprietary name of the drug the generic name refers to properties of drugsequivalent to genera of animals misuse of generic names by the media has clouded this distinction frequently the generic name of a drug carries the name of the acid or base with which the drug was stabilized into a salt The generic name is assigned by an agency called the United States Adopted Name Council USAN composed of members drawn from the American Medical Association the American Pharmaceutical Association the US Pharmacopoeial Convention and the Food and Drug AdministrationThis name is established so the public has something to call the drug without becoming involved in legalities with the drug companies over registered trademarksThis name is never assigned to another drug and it can be applied only to substances of proven therapeutic value except for older drugs the generic name is also the name listed in the United States Pharmacopoeia or the National Formulary both official compendia setting forth standards for the identity strength purity labeling storage and therapeutic value of compounds which help to insure uniformity in quality Older drugs may also have a separate USP or NF nameExample barbiturates amphetamine phenothiazinesThe generic name of a drug carries the name of the acid or base with which the drug was stabilized into a salt1Example alkaloid morphinesulfuric acid morphine sulfateExample acidic drug calcium cyclobarbital sodium pentobarbitalC Trade Name Brand Name used commercially depends solely on the caprices of advertising consultants and drug manufacturers Each company copyrights and reserves the exclusive rights to use its trade name permanently Because most prescriptions are written for brand name products which are more expensive than those marketed genericallyone reason being immense advertising campaignsmost states legislated in the early eighties to allow pharmacists to automatically substitute generic for brand name drugs unless specified by the physician this saves costumers money D Street Name slang label used in the street applied to abused substances by their devotees an unofficial name of the drug There may be hundreds of street names for drugs throughout different locales some of which may be misrepresentationsnamely one drug sold as anotherExample love drug is Quaalude2 EquivalenceA Chemical equivalence the drugs contain identical chemical components and molecules of their active ingredients that are present in identical proportionsB Biological equivalence the drugs affect the same biological systems in similar degrees even if they have different active ingredientsC Clinical equivalence the drugs produce the same overall effect even if they are different molecules affecting different mechanisms Clinical equivalence can be compromised if two products dissolve at different rates In this case two brand drugs with the same active ingredients which would be biologically equivalent under other circumstances are no longer clinically equivalent 2Example phenothiazines chlorpromazine and lithium for manic patients3 Classifications their use is usually determined by the goals one has in mind They are based on chemical structures and on behavioral effects For psychopharmacologists classification is based on behavioral effects and therapeutic objectivesThe common procedure in classifying new drugs is to compare their behavioral effects with those of the prototypical drug in each of the categories and to develop a general profile of effects to see where the new drug fits inClassifying drugs is not easy because each drug has a range of properties and some may not rest easily under any one heading Moreover if a drug affects a certain neurotransmitter all of the systems involving that transmitter may be affected and the drug then has a smorgasbord of results that do not fall easily into one category Therefore drug classifications serve only as a rough crossreferencing system that can help provide indications of a drugs profile of effectsA Sedatives depressants or downers produce drowsiness sedation and sleep Their main clinical uses are for anesthesia for the treatment of seizure disorder epilepsy and as sleeping pills for insomnia Prototypical drug pentobarbital Nembutal and barbital Veronal they include all of the barbiturates and alcoholB Anxiolytics antianxiety agents and minor tranquilizers relieve anxiety symptoms without causing drowsiness They are used mainly to treat minor mood disorders anxiety disorders seizure disorder and alcoholism Prototypical drug diazepam Valium and meprobamate Miltown Equanil they include benzodiazepines and propanediol carbonatesC Neuroleptics antipsychotics and major tranquilizers calm the patient much more than minor tranquilizers producing catatonia artificial hibernation and3
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