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Chapter 33 – Circulation.docx

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BIOL 1001

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Chapter 33 – Circulation Blood Volume and Composition • 50­60% of volume is plasma • Cellular portion is 40­50% • 45% RBC 1% WBC • Complete Blood Count (CBC): WBC, WBC differential count, RBC, hematocrit,  Platelets Plasma • Water, Plasma proteins, dissolved ions and molecules  • Serum Albumin: main plasma protein • Other proteins include antibodies • Glucose and other simple sugars, amino acids  • Communication molecules (cyclic AMP) • Steroid Hormones • Vitamins • Dissolved gasses Blood Glucose •  Glycated Hemoglobin  : a form of hemoglobin used to identify the plasma glucose  concentration over time • Glucose sticks to hemoglobin • Formed in a non-enzymatic pathway by hemoglobin's normal exposure to high plasma levels of glucose. • Normal range (that found in healthy persons) is 4% to 5.9%, increased in persons with poorly controlled diabetes Erythrocytes (Red Cells) • Most numerous cells in blood • Measured by a hemocrit • Transport oxygen and carbon dioxide • Colored by oxygen binding pigment hemoglobin (they are bags filled with hemoglobin) • No nucleus when mature, no DNA (white cells do) • Made from adult stem cells in the bone marrow (multipotent hematopoetic stem cells) • Concave disc shape increases surface area • Only undergo glycolysis • Life cycle is 120 days • Leukocytes (WBC) • Granulocytes: contain granular inclusions • Eosinophils: allergic responses and parasites, have a lobed nucleus • Neutrophils: most common, seen during inflammation, ingest microorganisms and particles • Basophils: allergies and inflammation response, secret histamine, least common granulocyte, not lobed • Agranulocytes: no granular inclusions - Monocytes: Macrophages - B and T Lymphocytes: operation during immune response Platelets (Thrombocytes) • Disc-shaped, membrane-boun
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