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BIOL 1111
Michael Balsai

Animal Biology and Anatomy- Exam 3 The Dichotomy of Parazoans vs. Eumetazoans • Parazoans only include sponges (phylum Porifera). o They do not have true tissues; you can put a sponge in a blender, place it in an aquarium, and it will eventually come together and form a sponge again. • Everything else are eumetazoans; these organisms have true tissues. Bilateral vs. Radial Symmetry Eumetazoa is divided into two major groups: • Animals with radial symmetry o Possess a top (aboral) and bottom (oral), but no distinct ventral, dorsal, left, or right side. o Their anatomy allows them to encounter the environment equally from all sides. o Many are sessile (stay put) or planktonic (drift or swim weakly). o Diploblastic. o Include phyla: Cnidaria, Ctenophora. • Animals with bilateral symmetry o Possess a dorsal, ventral, anterior, and posterior side. o Cephalization leads to a head, a concentration of sense organs at the anterior end. This side is the first to encounter the environment. o Triploblastic. o Include phyla: Arthropoda, Gnathostomulida, Rotifera, Platyhelminthes, Chordata, etc. • The only animals that have no body symmetry are sponges (phylum Porifera). Remember, sponges are parazoa, not eumetazoa! Superphylum Lophotrochozoa This term refers to a major group within the animal kingdom in which most, but not all of its members have either a lophophore or a trochophore. • Lophophore: a filter-feeding apparatus consisting of hollow tentacles. The mouth is located inside the ring of tentacles, and the anus is located outside. Cilia on the tentacles generate a current of water which allows it to filter food particles. • Trochophore: a microscopic swimmer larva. It has two bands of cilia which help it move and gather food. • Include phyla: Mollusca, Annelida. The Coelom A coelom is a fluid-filled body cavity surrounded by mesoderm. • Acoelomates o Have a solid body without a cavity. o Mesoderm fills entire space. o Use total-body peristalsis (contracting the entire body) in order to move food through gut. • Pseudocoelomates o Have a fluid-filled cavity with one side surrounded by mesoderm. o Use total-body peristalsis in order to move food through gut. • Eucoelomates o Have a “true coelom:” a fluid-filled cavity surrounded on both sides by mesoderm. o Possess one or more mesenteries, connections of mesoderm that suspend the endoderm and coelom within the body. o Muscles that line the digestive tract use peristalsis to move food through the gut. • Note: all three groups are triploblastic! They contain all three cell layers. Animal Digestion Animal Pathway of digestion What is happening in each area 1.Mouth Mechanical pulverization, enzymatic Human decomposition of starch, & for
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