[CHEM 1032] - Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (23 pages long!)

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CHEM 1032
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Phases and Intermolecular Forces
Matter:
o Solid
Molecules are much closer together and interact with each other
o Liquid
Molecules are much closer together and interact with each other
o Gas
Always in motion
Large distances between the molecules and atom
o Intermolecular Forces: interactions between molecules
o Thermal Energy > Intermolecular Force = gas
o Thermal Energy < Intermolecular Force = solid or liquid
o Water:
Phase
Temperature (Celsius)
Density (@ 1 atm ; g/cm3)
Molar Volume (L)
Gas
100
5.90 x 10-4
30.5
Liquid
20
0.998
18.0
Solid
0
0.917
19.6
Temperature:
o Measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules
Solids and liquids are not easily compressed.
Gases are easily compressed
Liquid gas = reduce pressure
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Gas liquid = increase pressure
Strength of force dependent on structure and shape of the particles
At room temperature:
o Moderate strong = liquid or solid
High melting and boiling points
o Weak = gas
Low melting and boiling points
Charge:
o Partial charges
o Temporary charges
Coulomb’s Law:
o E = (1/4E0)(q1q2/r)
o E is more negative as distance increases and as the magnitude of the charge increases
o The more negative E, the more favorable stable the interaction
Intermolecular forces are always weaker than a bonding interaction
o Bonding Interaction: proton and electron interaction at very small distances
o Intermolecular forces are smaller charges at greater distances
Intermolecular Forces:
o Dispersion Forces (or London Dispersion)
o Dipole Dipole Forces
o Hydrogen Bonding
o Ion Dipole Forces
Dispersion Forces:
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