KINS 1222 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Paranasal Sinuses, Hyoid Bone, Olfactory Epithelium

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Unit 3 Guide
Ch. 22 – The Respiratory System
Functions of this body system
oRespiration - the exchange of gases
its four processes involve both respiratory and circulatory systems
oolfaction - smell
ospeech
Nose
oFunctions
oStructures
Olfactory epithelium
The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal
cavity that is involved in smell.
Conchae
air flows through and gets stuck to mucus to capture pathogen
Sinuses
Paranasal sinuses
ohollowed out areas in the bone
Respiratory mucosa
cilia move contaminated mucus posteriorly to throat
inspired air warmed by networks of capillaries and veins
Pharynx
oconnects nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus
oNasopharynx vs. oropharynx vs. laryngopharynx
nasopharynx is behind the nasal cavity
soft palate
uvula
oblocks off passageway of nasal cavity so food does not go through it
auditory tube
oconnects ear and throat
oropharynx
located behind oral cavity
laryngopharynx
located behind the larynx
Larynx
oRelationship to hyoid bone
attaches to the hyoid bone; opens into laryngopharynx, continuous with the trachea
oFunctions
provides patent airway
routes air and food into proper channels
oEpiglottis
swings off and closes off trachea when eat and drink
oVocal Cords
voice production
cartilage surrounds to control opening and closing; they come together and move apart
as well as get shorter and longer to form higher pitches.
Trachea
oopen all the time
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oC-Rings
also gives room to the esophagus to expand
makes letter C, not always closed
open on backside to help with expansion of airways
oTrachealis
controls diameter by contracting and relaxing
Bronchial Tree
ostarts to move to lungs
oBronchi vs. Bronchioles
bronchioles
the airways are very small; and less than 1 mm in diameter
the cartilage becomes elastic fibers and the elastic fibers help control diameter
of airways more
smooth muscle increases so you also have more control of airways diameter
oStructural changes that occur as you descend down the tree
Respiratory Zone
oBegins with respiratory bronchioles (from terminal bronchioles)
oAlveoli
alveolar ducts -> alveolar sacs
oRespiratory Membrane
separates air from the alveoli with the blood from pulmonary arteries
Lungs
oStructural Features
Apex, Base, Hilum, Cardiac Notch
the apex is the top of the lung
the base is the bottom of the lung
the cardiac notch
oindentation
room for heart to be placed near lungs
heart is a little to the left
oBlood Supply -> Pulmonary Circulation
pulmonary circulation (low pressure, high volume)
pulmonary arteries
pulmonary veins
oNervous Innervation
Parasympathetic vs. Sympathetic System
parasympathetic is bronchoconstriction
orelaxing, so airways are smaller
sympathetic is bronchodilation
ostress, dilating airways for innervating alveoli
oPleura
parietal pleura
outer layer
visceral pleura
inner layer; hugs organs
pleural fluid fills slit-like pleural cavity
if pierced, lung collapses
provides lubrication and surface tension
Breathing (Ventilation)
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oVentilation is the act of breathing
ventilation is moving air into/out of lungs
oAtomospheric pressure (760 mmHg) at sea level
this is the pressure outside the body
oIntra-alveolar pressure -> (also intrapulmonary pressure); changes in size of thoracic cavity by
contracting and relaxing;
ointra-pleural pressure: between pleural cavity in linings
small amount of pressure equal to or less than intra-alveolar)
oBoyles Law
Pressure and volume are inversely proportional
oFactors Affecting Ventilation
Airway resistance
how big airways/bronchioles are
oif diameter is smaller the resistance increases
oif the diameter is larger it decreases resistance
Alveolar surface tension
attracts liquid molecules to each other at gas-liquid interface
water-high surface tension and it coats alveolar walls
oThis reduces alveolar walls to smallest size
Lung Compliance
Distensibility (“stretchiness”) of lung tissues
omakes it difficult to ventilate
oif lots of chemicals and scar tissue, increases scar tissue
oFunction Test -> Spirometer
spirometer is an instrument useful for measuring respiratory volumes and capacities
oInspiration vs. Expiration
inspiration - gases flow into lungs
active process; muscles contract, effort required
expiration -> gases flow out of lungs
passive process; muscles relax so no energy is needed
if expiration is forced THEN you may need energy
oLung Volumes (See Worksheet)
oNervous System Control
Ventral vs. Dorsal respiratory group
ventral respiratory group is normal breathing
orhythm generating and integrative center
osets eupnea (12-15 breaths/min)
Normal respiratory rate and rhythm
odorsal respiratory group (DRG)
helps modulate respiratory group
tells if need to increase or decrease respiratory rate
integrates input from peripheral stretch and chemoreceptors;
sends information -> VRG
Central vs. Peripheral chemoreceptors
central = CSF-> cerebrospinal fluid
peripheral = monitors blood; not sensitive to pH
CO2, H+, and O2 control homeostasis
oEupnea, Hyperventilation, & Apnea
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