Chapter 10 Global Climate Change
1. Define and differentiate between global warming and global climate change.
Global warming refers to the recent and ongoing rise in global average temperature near Earth's
surface. It is caused mostly by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Global
warming is causing climate patterns to change. However, global warming itself represents only one
aspect of climate change.
Climate change refers to any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended
period of time. In other words, climate change includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or
wind patterns, among other effects, that occur over several decades or longer.
2. Evidence for global climate change.
1- Ice core analyses.
2-Melting sea ice and mountain glaciers.
3-Ocean waters heating up and acidifying.
4- Shifting range of biological species and temporal advancement of spring events.
3. What is greenhouse effect? What would the earth’s surface temperature be without the greenhouse
The Greenhouse Effect- describes how the earth’s atmosphere acts like the panes of glass in a
greenhouse. CO2, water vapor and other gases in the atmosphere act like the glass in the greenhouse
The following are major greenhouses gases of concern: Water vapor, Methane, Carbon dioxide (CO2),
Nitrous oxide (N2O), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
The greenhouse effect adds 34°C (equal to 61.2 °F) warming to the surface of earth.
Each gas's effect on climate change depends on:
1-Concentration and amount emitted.
2-How long it stays in the atmosphere.
3-How strongly it absorbs the radiation. 4. Which countries are the top three CO emi2ters into the atmosphere?
5. What are some environmental and health impacts of global climate change?
1. Health problems.
2. Heat stress.
3. Natural weather disasters.
4. Changes in vector distributions and infectious disease patterns.
5. Unreliable crop production.
6. What are some solutions (or mitigation strategies) in addressing global climate change? For
example, ways to reduce carbon footprint/emission.
1. Reduce the generation of greenhouse gases, most notably CO2.
2. Increase the capacity of the sink of CO2.
3. Stop deforestation.
4. Increase forest growth.
5. Reduce the combustion of fossil fuels.
6. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
7. Reduce carbon footprint.
Kyoto Protocol – U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change; sets binding emissions-reduction
targets for industrialized countries and mechanisms to achieve them; U.S. has not ratified
Copenhagen Accord – 188 countries acknowledge that climate change is an issue they must individually
address; emissions reductions will be measured, reported, and verified
Chapter 11 Food Safety:
1. What factors influence food demand?
1. Population growth
2. Rising income & standards of living.
3. Diet. 2. What are major causes of hunger?
1. Population growth- Food supply problems most acute in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
2. Rising personal incomes translate into increased demand for high-quality foods such as meat and
dairy products. It takes a lot more grain to feed an animal than eating grains directly.
Status symbol of modern lifestyle.
3. What are some impacts of hunger in terms of nutrient deficiency and diseases?
1. Estimates suggest that over 1 billion people are undernourished worldwide.
2. 19,000 children die daily from malnutrition and related ailments.
3. Malnutrition directly or indirectly causes half of all deaths in children under 5 in less-developed
4. Malnutrition leads to Micronutrients deficiency & Iron deficiency.
5. Malnutrition directly impacts growth and mental development.
6. Reduces bodily defenses, increasing susceptibility to infectious disease.
7. Reduced health status reduces productivity.
8. Strenuous physical labor becomes impossible.
9. Mothers have higher risk of miscarriage, premature delivery, low birth weight, stillbirth.
10. Milk of undernourished mothers lower than normal in vitamins, fat, and protein.
Kwashiorkor - Protein deficiency.
Marasmus- Overall protein-calorie deprivation.
4. What are some prospects for reducing world hunger?
1. Expand amount of cultivated land.
2. Increase world fish catch.
3. Reduce post-harvest food losses.
4. Eat lower on the food chain.
5. Improve yields per acre.
5. Distinguish between food additives and food contaminants. What are some examples of each?
Intentional (direct)- Additives are added to foods in order to improve their quality. Companies can
use inferior material to maximize profits.
Incidental (indirect)- Additives maybe present in foods as a result of unintentional contamination
during packing, storage, and handling.
Preservatives- Stop the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds in foods.
Antioxidants- Prevents fatty foods from acquiring a rancid taste. They prevent some foods from
turning brown and reduce loss of vitamins.
Antimicrobial- Among preservatives are nitrates (sodium nitrates), Disodium EDTA, Sulfites. 6. What federal agency reports and investigates foodborne illness outbreaks? (See lecture notes; that
is the CDC).
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the U.S. agency charged with regulation and enforcement of
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) regulates the safety of meat and poultry products.
Office of food safety is the CDC branch.
CDC Foodborne Di