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SOCI 1010 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Impression Management, False Consciousness, Erving Goffman

Soc & Anthropology
Course Code
SOCI 1010
Study Guide

of 9
Suggestions for Study for the First Test
Sociology 1010: Re-scheduled for Friday, October 7, 2016 Hendrixson
1. What did C. Wight Mills ea  the soiologial iagiatio?
The ability to see the impact of social forces on our private, individual lives
2. Why is it important to understand the relationship between the public and private
domains of life?
3. It is said that Americans believe in individualism more than other industrialized nations. How
is this ethic of individualism manifested i ou eplaatio of isfotue?
Americans tend to believe in individualism more than other industrialized nations. As
Americans, we tend to blame misfortune on our personal deficiencies rather than looking at
broader social factors that could have impacted an outcome.
4. Be able to define social structure, society, culture, institution, and ethnocentrism.
- Social structure: the people in a society considered as a system organized by a
characteristic pattern of relationships
- Society: a population of people living in the same geographic area who share a culture and
common identity and whose members are subject to the same political forces
- Culture: language, values, beliefs, rules, behaviors, and artifacts that characterize a society
- Institution: stable set of rules, statuses, groups, and organizations
such as the institutions of education, family, politics, religion, health care, or the economy
that provides a foundation for behavior in some major area of social life.
- Ethnocentrism: tendency to judge another ulture usig oe’s o as a stadard
5. What are the characteristic features of the three major theoretical frameworks for
understanding society:
- Structural-Functionalism: theoretical perspective that poses that social institutions are
structured to maintain stability and order in society
- Conflict Theory: Theoretical perspective that views the structure of society as a source of
inequality that always benefits some groups at the expense of other groups
- Symbolic Interaction: theoretical perspective that explains society and social structure
through an examination of the microlevel, personal, day to day exchanges of people as
individuals, pairs, or groups
6. Identify:
- Emile Durkheim:
Structural functionalist, 19 century sociologist that argued rapid social changes create a
vaccum in social norms, in which people search for new guidelines to govern their lives,
-Karl Marx:
most famous scholar associated with Conflict theory, focused on economic arrangements and
argued that all human societies are structured around the production of goods that people
need to survive
-W. E. B. DuBois:
Pioneer black sociologist
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-Harriet Martineau
First female sociologist
-Max Weber
Argued that, although dehumanizing, human beings could not accomplish near as many feats
without bureaucracies
-G. H. Mead
Identified two major stages in role taking, formulating oe’s behavior from perspectives and
expectations: play stage and game stage
-C. H. Cooley
One of the earliest symbolic interactionalists, looking glass self, in which we use others
reactions to us to define who we are
-Stanley Milgram
Conducted peer shock experiment to prove his theory on obedience to authority
-Phillip Zimbardo
Conducted the Stanford prison experiment
7. Social structure: a) can proide for soiet’s eeds, ) a e a soure of soial proles
8. The dual nature of structure: constraining and enabling.
9. P. Zimbardo: the importance of social conditions, circumstances and situations in
Influencing how people will act. (The Stanford Mock Prison Study)
10. Stanley Milgram: cruel acts by ordinary people (Would you apply electric shock to a stranger
If an authority figure asked you to do so?)
11. The significance of authority, objectification and dehumanization in mass violence.
12. What did George H. Mead mean by the statement that the self is socially constructed?
What did he mean when he said the social experience is essential to the selfand who we are?
What is the significance of the Self is made of two parts: the I/Me?
The dialectical relationship between self-other; significant others and generalized others?
George Herbert Mead is well-know for his theory of the social self, which is based on the centr
al argument that the self is a social emergent. The social conception of the self entails that individual s
elves are the products of social interaction and not the logical or biological preconditions of that inter
action. It is not initially there at birth, but arises in the process of social experience and activity.
According to Mead, there are three activities through which the self is developed: Language,
play, and game. Language allows individuals to take on the role of the other and allows people to re
spond to his or her own gestures in terms of the symbolized attitudes of others. During play, individua
ls take on the roles of other people and pretend to be those other people in order to express the expe
ctations of significant others. This process of role-playing is key to the generation of self-
consciousness and to the general development of the self. In the game, the individual is required to in
ternalize the roles of all others who are involved with him or her in the game and must comprehend t
he rules of the game.
Mead’s concept of the geeralized other is also essential to his theory, which he defines as a
n organized and generalized attitude of a social group. The individual defines his or her own behavior
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with reference to the generalized attitude of the social group(s) they occupy. When the individual can
view himself or herself from
the standpoint of the generalized other, self-consciousness in the full sense of the term is attained.
George Herbert Mead is also well-known for his concept of the I and the e. According to
Mead, the self has two sides. The e represents the expectations and attitudes of others (the gene
ralized other). It is the organized set of attitudes of others that the individual assumes. The I is the r
esponse to the e, or the perso’s individuality. According to Mead, the generalized other (internali
zed in the e) is the major instrument of social control for it is the mechanism by which the commu
-nity exercises control over the conduct of its individual members.
13. Wh is it ipotat to udestad the othe’s poit of ie, takig the ole of the othe?
If e a put ourseles i soeoe else’s plae e a the ore learl see their oties
or ideas and what they stem from, we can relate better, which will help resolve conflict
14. What did C. H. Coole ea  the lookig-glass self, the efleted self?
We use our interactions with others and their reactions to us to view and define ourselves
15. Any one symbol may have contradictory meanings for people with different
values, experiences: cross, confederate flag, kneeling during the national anthem,
Black power salute, for example. Can you think of other examples?
16. Define socialization.
Process through which one learns how to act according to the rules and expectations of a
particular culture
17. Agents of socialization.
Those who can influence our self-concepts, attitudes, tastes, values, emotions, and behavior.
EX) family, friends, peers, teammates, schools, religious institutions, and the media
18. Language: the ipotae of the eaple of Vito ad Geie.
shows that when people are isolated from society, they lose the ability to nurture and develop
into a normal human. The case of Victor and Genie show this perfectly because their isolation
resulted in them having the cognitive function of a 1-year-old.
9. “oial iteatio: though the ediu of laguage ad sols…to hih e assig
20. Explain how social structure is produced and reproduce through interaction.
21. Nonverbal communication is important in interaction. Give some examples.
22. How does the organization of space reflect values and expectations?
23. Define: institutionalized norm. Give an example.
Pattern of behavior within existing social institutions that is widely accepted in a society;
Slavery and the way of becoming financially successful
24. What role does a self-fulfilling prophecy have in the social construction of reality? Example?
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