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PSYC 101 Exam 3 Review.pdf

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PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

Learning▯ Learning- permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience ▯ Classical Conditioning- stimuli and a response ▯ ▯ Discrimination- responding to certain stimuli and not to others▯ ▯ ex. being scared of only white rats▯ ▯ generalization- new stimulus to elicit a similar response ▯ ▯ ex. little albert feared anything white not just the rat▯ Operant Conditioning -response and a consequence ▯ ▯ Reinforcement: postive, negative- taking away something good▯ Reinforcement means something good that you take away. you want a behavior to occur ▯ ▯ Positive- stimulus is added▯ ▯ Negative- stimulus is removed▯ ▯ Punishment- opposite of reinforcement, your decreasing the behavior ▯ Difference between negative reinforcement and punishment- punishment decreases the likelihood it will occur whereas negative reinforcement increases the likelihood it will occur▯ ▯ Extinction- stopping a behavior from occurring ▯ Observational learning- bicurious learning through others by observing and imitating (modeling)▯ ▯ Banduras 4 main processes - has to be reinforced▯ ▯ -attention▯ ▯ -retention▯ ▯ -motor reproduction▯ ▯ -reinforcement ▯ ▯ Memory▯ memory- retention of information or experience over time▯ 3 main processes ▯ ▯ encoding- getting info in ▯ ▯ storage- represent and retain it▯ ▯ retrieval- recall it at a later time▯ Divided Attention- multi-tasking. focusing on several things at the same time. Aren't always processing info ▯ Different ways to enhance memory:▯ ▯ Elaboration- making it meaningful to you▯ ▯ Imagery- picture or visual ▯ ▯ Rehearsal- practicing ex. flashcards ▯ Atkinson-Shiffrin Theory: what are the memory stages. 3 separate systems▯ ▯ Sensory memory: fraction of a second to several seconds (not meaningful)▯ ▯ Short-term memory: 30 seconds ex. student ID or phone #▯ ▯ Long-term memory: up to a lifetime▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Motivation▯ Intrinsic vs Extrinsic▯ ▯ Intrinsic- internal factors (values)▯ ▯ Extrinsic- external factors (punishment and rewards)▯ Maslow’s Theory: know order ▯ ▯ Self-Actualization (top)▯ ▯ Esteem▯ ▯ s s e n g n i g n o l e b d n a e v o ▯ L ▯ Safety▯ ▯ Physiological (bottom)▯ Basic needs need to be met before going to the next one. ▯ Not all needs will be satisfied at the same time▯ ▯ Gastric Signals- tell us if we’re hungry ▯ ▯ -originate in body, stomach▯
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