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Chapter 6

PSYC 101 Chapter 6 Learning.docx

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Towson University
PSYC 101
Barbara Wilson

PSYC 101 Chapter 6: Learning Types of Learning Learning: a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience Classical Conditioning: association between a stimuli and a response Operant Conditioning: association between a response and a consequence Observational learning Classical Conditioning: Terminology -Helps to explain involuntary behavior Unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that brings about a response without any prior learning Ex. Meat Unconditioned response (UCR): unlearned response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) Ex. Dog salivating Neutral Stimulus (NS) ex. The sound of Pavlov’s bell prior to pairing with the meat Conditioned stimulus (CS): a neutral stimulus that, when associated with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), elicits a conditioned response Ex. The sound of bell Conditioned response (CR): the learned response of the Conditioned stimulus (C S) EX. Dog salivating Classical Conditioning: Pavlov (slide 8) - Unlearned/Reflexive UCS – meat powder UCR – Dog salivates - NS: the sound of Pavlov’s bell (prior to pairing with the meat powder) - Learned CS- sound of Pavlov’s bell CR- dog salivates Classical Conditioning -Generalization: tendency of a new stimulus to elicit a similar response - Little albert and the white rat - Rat-CS—Gong—US—Albert cries - Rat-CS –Albert cries—CR -Discrimination: learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to other -discrimination generally is learned by presenting other CS’s without the UCS -Extinction: weakening of the conditioned response (CR) in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus -ex. Pavlov rang the bell but did not present food, and the dog stopped salivating Classical Conditioning: Applications -Phobias -watson and Rayer (1920)-Little Albert -White rat (CS) paired with loud nose (UCS) -Counter Conditioning -associate CS with new, incompatible CR -CS paired with new UCS -aversive conditioning -placebo effect -immune and endocrine responses -taste aversion -advertising -drug habituation Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning: association between a response and a consequence -better at explain
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