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Tufts University
Political Science
Kelly Greenhill

activists: people who care enough about some issue that they are prepared to incur significant costs and act to achieve their goals anarchy: when no set order or authority exists • ex: multipolar international system appeasement: diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy in order to avoid conflict • ex: Neville Chamberlain and Hitler autarky: self-sufficiency authoritarianism: an absolute obedience to authority balancing: preserving the status quo • can be done internally or externally and involves deterring any rising power bandwagoning: joining with the bigger more influential power for security • ex: Britain bandwagoned with the U.S. for Iraqi intervention • ex: Stalin bandwagons with Hitler for own safety Balance of Power: system based on sovereignty and the absence of a world government (i.e. anarchy); distribution of power whereby no single state is powerful enough to dominate or interfere with all others (i.e. absence of hegemony) • coalitions and alliances form to prevent hegemony • can instill competition • is about the preservation of the status quo (through peace when possible and war if necessary) • internal balancing: arms racing, growth of one’s military, catching up to others • external balancing: forming alliances, preventive strikes to neutralize potential hegemons • can result in security dilemma bipolar: two major powers influencing the international system • ex: Triple Alliance and Triple Entente in WWI boomerang effect: idea that citizens in a given country are abused by their government but are incapable of swaying political decisions so they search for other larger more powerful groups that leverage over their government to lobby on their behalf buck-passing: occurs when states allow others to bear the burden of halting the rise of a state; “we don’t want to deal with the rising power, we’ll let someone else tell them “no” • ex: League of Nations with Japan and Manchuria chain-ganging: occurs when states are dragged into war by reckless allies • ex: World War I classical diplomacy: developed at the Congress of Vienna, this system of diplomacy created a shared responsibility to keep and accept the decided upon balance of power and was very successful during its time period (1815-1914, “100 Years of Peace,” “The Long Peace”) due to a number of advantages • statesman did not concern themselves with public opinion • no lobbyists • limits on armed force and technology • ideological differences not substantial enough to lead to war • small number and type of actors • shared goals and objectives • professional diplomats collective security: when each state of a system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all and commits to a collective response to threats and breaches to peace • ex: failed in League of Nations during Japanese invasion on Manchuria constitutional liberalism: type of government that permits basic freedoms of speech, assembly, religion, property, etc. containment: U.S. policy to prevent spread of Communism Cordon Sanitaire: small, weak countries in the middle of Europe unable to defend themselves from Europe Cult of the Offensive: in favor of striking first deflation: decrease in price level democracy: type of government that has a separation of powers and an elected office dependent variable: a variable framing the caused phenomenon of a casual theory or hypothesis; effected by independent variable • ex: sun photosynthesis  plant growth détente: a relaxation of tension between adversaries by means of a conscious and more rational policy of engagement, cooperation, and accomodation domino theory: if one country falls (to Communism), others will follow economic diplomacy: foreign diplomacy fused with economics, trade, and finance • ex: 1922, Walter Rathenau, owner of domestic and international enterprises, became German foreign minister fascism: radical authoritarian nationalism free-riding: when one consumes more than its fair share of a public resource, or shoulder less tan a fair share of the costs of its production • Hitler used free-riding to gain power before WWII globalization: international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, economics, ideas, and other aspects of culture • was not universally beneficial o countries that succeeded: EastAsian Tigers (South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong), China, Thailand, and Brazil o countries that failed: Zambia, 43 African countries o In 2000, although the percentage of people living in poverty had decreased, the number had increased o the West was blamed for failures in globalization gold standard: when the value of all currencies are based off of a given amount of gold hegemony: when a hegemon (leader state) has political power over other subordinate states Idealism (Constructivism): paradigm claiming international politics is shaped by persuasive ideas, collective values, culture, and social identities illiberal democracy: a governing system where although elections take place, citizens lack civil liberties • ex: Iran imperialism: an unequal human and territorial relationship, usually in the form of an empire, based on i
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