[CH 104] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 39 pages long Study Guide!

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CH 104
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Chemistry
August 23, 2016
Chapters 1-3 homework due September 12 on Connect
Chapters 1-3 test on September 13 6:30 PM (34 exam questions, 11 questions per chapter,
extra question on balloons)
Blackboard Collaborate tonight- recitation problem working at 6:30 PM (open at 6:00)
Can check test practice answers against key during office hours
CHAPTER ONE
Scientific Method:
Observations Hypothesis Experiments Theory
States of Matter:
Solid Liquid Gas
Solid:
definite volume
definite shape
particles in order
Liquid:
definite volume
no definite shape
particles close but can move around
Gas:
no definite volume
no definite shape
particles far apart and move randomly
Physical Changes:
A physical change alters the material without altering composition
Ex:
solid water melting liquid water boiling
Chemical Changes:
A chemical change alters the material by altering the composition. It is the conversion of one
substance into another
Ex:
hydrogen balloons reacting to oxygen in the air produces water
Classification of Matter:
Matter
Can it be separated by a physical process?
Yes: Mixture (salt filled with rice grains)
No: Pure Substance (salt without rice grains)
Can it be broken down into simpler substances by a chemical reaction?
Yes: Compound
No: Element (atoms)
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Units of Measure:
Quantity
Metric Base Unit
Symbol
Length
Meter
m
Mass
Gram
g
Volume
Liter
L
Time
Second
s
Metric Prefixes:
Prefix
Symbol
Meaning
Numerical Value
Giga
G
Billion
1000000000
Mega
M
Million
1000000
Kilo
k
Thousand
1000
Deci
d
Tenth
0.1
Centi
c
Hundredth
0.01
Milli
m
Thousandth
0.001
Micro
^c
Millionth
0.000001
Nano
n
Billionth
0.000000001
Numbers:
An exact number results from counting objects or is part of a definition
10 fingers
10 toes
1 meter = 100 centimeters
An inexact number results from a measurement or observation and contains some uncertainty
15.3 cm
1000.8 g
0.0034 mL
Significant Figures:
Significant figures are all digits in a measured number including one estimated digit
All non-zero digits are significant
65.2 g (3 sig figs) 255.345 (6 sig figs)
Rules for zero
A zero is significant if:
between two nonzero digits
29.05 g (4 sig figs) 1.0087 mL (5 sig figs)
at the end of a number with a decimal place
3.7500 cm (5 sig figs) 620. lb (3 sig figs)
A zero is not significant if:
at the beginning of a number
0.00245 mg (3 sig figs) 0.008 mL (1 sig fig)
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