[PY 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (57 pages long)

95 views57 pages

For unlimited access to Study Guides, a Grade+ subscription is required.

UA
PY 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 57 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 57 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Chapter 3 Psychology Notes
The nervous system is responsible for everything we think, feel and do.
Basic components
Neurons: the basic units of the nervous system; cells that receive,
integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system.
They operate through electrical impulses, communicate with
other neurons through chemical signals, and form neural
networks.
Human Neuron
Santiago Ramon Cajal
Credited with discovering that neurons were individual cells, eventually leading to
what would later be referred to as the neuron doctrine.
The Nervous System Has Two Basic Divisions
Central Nervous System (CNS): brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): all nerve cells in the body that are not apart
of the central nervous system. The peripheral nervous system includes the
somatic and autonomic nervous systems.
Types of Neurons
Sensory Neurons: These neurons detect information from the physical
world and pass the information to the brain.
Somatosensory nerves provide information from the skin and
muscles.
Motor neurons: These neurons direct muscles to contract or relax, thereby
producing movement.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 57 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Interneurons: These neurons communicate within local or short-distance
circuits.
Neuron Structure
Dendrite: branch like extensions of the neuron that detect information from other
neurons.
Cell body (soma): the site in the neuron where information from thousands of
other neurons is collected and integrated.
Axon: a long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to
other neurons.
Terminal buttons: at the ends of axons, small nodules that release chemical
signals from neuron into the synapse
Synapse: the gap between the axon of a “sending” neuron and the dendrites of a
receiving” neuron and the site at which chemical communication occurs between
neurons
The Resting Membrane Potential Is Negatively Charged
The resting membrane potential: the electrical charge of a neuron when it is not
active
Polarized: when a neuron has more negative ions inside it than outside.
Polarization: creates the electrical energy necessary to power the firing of
the neuron.
The Roles of Sodium and Potassium Ions
Sodium ions and potassium ions contribute to a neuron’s resting membrane
potential.
Ions pass through the cell membrane channels.
The flow of ions through each channel is controlled by gating mechanism.
Sodium-potassium pump: increases potassium outside the neuron; decreases
sodium inside the neuron.
Electrical Signal: within a neuron
At rest neurons contains ions in various intra- and extracellular concentrations.
Large - protein ions always stay inside inside the cell
K+ potassium. At rest it is mostly inside the cell
Cl- chloride. Higher extra-cellular concentration
Na+ sodium. Higher extra-cellular concentration
Action Potentials Cause Neural Communication
Action potential(neural firing): the electrical signal that passes along the axon and
subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 57 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class