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PY 101
William Petty

ature vs Nurture Define these terms: nature: the inherent character or basic constitution of a person or thing nurture: to support and encourage, as during the period of training or development genetics: the science o fheredity,dealing with resemblances and differences of related organisms resulting from the interaction of their genes and the environment environment: The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates. geneitc: relating to genes or heredity. inherited: Derive (a quality, characteristic, or predisposition) genetically from one's parents or ancestors For each trait below, mark whether it is acquired through genetic (G) factors or through environmental (E). If you think the trait is acquired through the interaction of genetics and environment, mark it as GE _extreme, repeated violence E _ schizophrenia GE _alcoholism _ manic-depression _ intelligence _ shyness _obesity _Alzheimer's disease _ homosexuality _ thrill seeking _temperament _ dyslexia _ nicotine dependence _ hyperactivity Explain how the environment and genetics could interact to produce the follpwing traits: 1. alcoholism - while the mother is bearing a child if she drinks alcohol constantly it can cause the child to possibly be an alcoholic in the future 2. nicotine dependence- 3. obesity- if there was a history of obesity in the family then the child might have a chance of being obese. But their own eating habits and exercise also make a difference it in. 4. extreme violence intelligence- its more based on if the child itself can understand a subject better. Sensation and Perception 4.1 Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles sensation: process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and  represent stimulus energies from our environment perception: the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to  recognize meaningful objects and events. bottom­up processing: analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the  brain’s integration of sensory information 5. enables our sensory systems to detect lines, angles and colors top­down processing: information processing guided by higher­level mental processes, as  when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. • considers the title, notice expressions, direct our attention to aspects to give it a meaning. Example: a humans ear is most sensitive to sounds ­ baby's cry and human voices. 4.1.1 Selective Attention • the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus Example: you have been unaware that your shoes are pressing against your feet, suddenly  your attention spotlight slips your feet feel encased • cocktail party affect ­ ability to attend to only one voice among many. you can tune in long  enough to decide whether to join conversation or not Selective Attention and Accidents • talking on your phone while driving­ selective attention shifts from phone to road • process of switching attention gears can cause fatal delays ­ accidents • phones/electronics = accidents Selective Inattention • inattentional blindness: failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed  elsewhere. • change blindness: failing to notice changes in the environment. • out of sight, out of mind 4.1.2 Thresholds psychophysics: the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli,  such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them. Absolute Thresholds • the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time. • studied by Gustav Fechner ( German scientist & philosopher) • absolute thresholds may vary in age, sensitivity decreases as age increases • signal detection theory: a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint  stimulus (signal)amid background stimulation (noise). • Example: soldiers detecting enemies during war Subliminal Stimulation • subliminal: below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness • prime: the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s  perception, memory, or response. • Example: the image or word is quickly flashed, then replaced by a masking stimulus that  interrupts the brain's processing before conscious perception • experiment reveals "sometimes we feel what we do not know and can not describe Difference Thresholds • we need absolute thresholds to be low enough to allow us to detect important sights,  sounds, tastes, smells textures • difference thresholds: the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50  percent of the time. a noticeable difference • Example: noticeable difference­ add 10 ounce to 1 ounce ­ unnoticeable ­ add 1 ounce to  100 ounces • Weber's Law: the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a  constant percentage 4.1.3 Sensory Adaption sensory adaption: diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. • reduces sensitivity ­ benefit is freedom to focus on informative changes without being  distracted 4.2 Vision transduce: converting one form of energy to another (sight to neural impulses ) our eyes see pulses of electromagnetic energy that is perceived as color wavelength: the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. hue: the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light (blue or green) intensity: the amount of energy in a light or sound wave (brightness or loudness) 4.2.2 The eye pupil: the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters iris: a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and  controls the size of the pupil opening. • iris is distinctive ­ machines know identity by scanning eyes lens: the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on  the retina retina: the light­sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones  plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information. accommodation: the process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus near or far  objects on the retina The Retina rods: retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and  twilight vision, when cones don’t respond. cones: retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that  function in daylight or in well­lit conditions. fovea: the central focal point in the retina; around the eye's cones cluster 4.2.3 Visual Information Processing • retina processes information before sending it to thalamus ­ info. is relayed to given parts of  visual cortex • sensitivity that enables retinal cells to fire messages can misfire too ­ can be triggered by  pressure Feature Detection • feature detection: nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus,  such as shape, angle, or movement • temporal lobe behind ear ­ enables you to perceive faces, if damaged you might recognize  other forms and objects • parallel processing: the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously • brain divides visual scene into color, movement, form, depth • face recognition requires 30% of cortex • destroying/disabling the neural workstation for other visual sub tasks produces different  results 4.2.4 Color Vision • color does not reside in vision but in our brains • 1 person in 50 is color deficient (most likely male) • Hermann von Helmholtz and Thomas Young inferred the eye must have 3 color receptors • Young­Helmholtz trichromatic (three color) theory:the theory that the retina contains three  different color receptors—one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue—which,  when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color. • people with color deficient are not actually color blind ­ lacking functioning red or green  sensitive cones • opponent­ process theory: the theory that opposing retinal processes (red­green, yellow­ blue, white­black) enable color vision. • Example: staring at green then when staring at white only the red part of the green­red  pairing will fire 4.3 Hearing • audition: sense of hearing • best hearing sounds of frequencies in a range corresponding to human voices • if our hearing was more sensitive could hear air molecules 4.3.1 The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves • sounds = vibrations ­> nerve impulses • frequency: the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time • pitch: a tone’s experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency • long waves = low frequency and low pitch (vice versa) • sound is measured in decibels 4.3.2 The Ear • outer ear channels sound waves ­> eardrum ­> middle ear ­> cochlea ­> inner ear ­> hair  cells ­> brain = hearing • middle ear: the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones  (hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s  oval window • cochlea: a coiled, bony, fluid­filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger  nerve impulses • inner ear: the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and  vestibular sacs • damage to hair cells account for most hearing loss • ringing = possible damage Perceiving Loudness • loudness interpreted by number of hair cells activated • hair cell loses sensitivity to soft sounds, may still respond to loud ones Perceiving Pitch • place theory: in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the  cochlea’s membrane is stimulated • sounds pitch is recognized by specific place on membrane • Georg von Békésy (1957) cut holes in the cochleas of guinea pigs and human cadavers  and looked inside the cochlea vibrated in respond to sound. • can only explain how we hear high pitch sounds not low pitch • Frequency Theory: in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the  auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch. Locating Sounds • two ears provide a sense of 3D hearing • two ears also mean hearing from all surroundings 4.3.3 Hearing Loss and Deaf Culture • conduction hearing loss: hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea • sensorineural hearing loss: hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea’s receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness • caused by diseases, hereditary, aging • cochlear implant: a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea • helps in oral communication, and restore hearing for adults 4.4.1 Touch • touch = essential for development • Example: premature babies gain weight faster and go home sooner if stimulated by hand massage • self produced touch produces less somatosensory cortex activation than the same from someone else • kinesthesis: the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. • people without it feel as if the body is not theirs, not real, dead • vestibular sense: the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance. 4.4.2 Pain • tells your body something is wrong • without warning of pain -> injuries only worsen Biological Influence • different sensory receptors detect hurtful temps. pressure or chemicals • gate - control theory: Patrick Wall and Ronald Melzack's idea that the spinal cord has  a neurological gate that blocks pain signals and allows it to pass to the brain. The "gate" is  control by the level of anxiety of pain that travels up smell nerve fibers. • we are distracted from pain by release of endorphins (natural pain killer) • phantom limb sensation ­> brain creates pain because of misinterpretation of central  nervous system activity Psychological Influence • distraction from pain to continue a certain action/activity • memories of pain differ from actual pain • 2 factors : people tend to record pain's peak moment -> recall the pain with peaks or worse / how much pain in the end Social- Cultural Influences • cultural and social situation varies perception of pain • we perceive more pain when others are too Controlling Pain • pain can be altered with drugs, distractions, surgery, exercise, massages, hypnosis, relaxation training • believing becomes reality -> fake pills helping to relieve pain because the patient believes they are actual pain killers • distracting and drawing away attention from pain increases pain tolerance. 4.4.3 Taste • taste sensations -> sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami (flavor enhancer) • taste = chemical sense -> taste buds on your tongue ( pores that catch food chemicals) • taste receptors reproduce every week or two -> as you age # of taste buds decrease Sensory Interaction • the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste. • smell can change perception of taste • senses can be blended -> seeing and hearing a video 4.4.4 Smell • infants and mothers recognize each others scent • peak of sense of smell is early adulthood and decreases as you age • attractiveness of smells is built • difficult to recall odor by name but can recognize long forgotten odors 4.5 Perceptual Organization • gestalt:an organized whole. Gestalt psychologists emphasized our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes. 4.5.1 Form Perception Figure and Ground • figure- ground:the organization of the visual field into objects (the figures) that stand out from their surroundings (the ground) • recognize faces as distinct from backgrounds Group • the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups. • color,movement, light, dark contrast, -> ordered to groups • proximity - group nearby figures • similarity - group similar figures • continuity- group by smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous • connectedness - group by uniform • closure- group by illusion 4.5.2 Depth Perception • the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance. • visual cliff: a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals • each species by the time its mobile has the perceptual ability it need binocular cues • depth cues, such as retinal disparity, that depend on the use of two eyes. • retinal disparity: a binocular cue for perceiving depth By comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance—the greater the disparity (difference) between the two images, the closer the object. • monocular cues: depth cues, such as interposition and linear perspective, available to either eye alone 4.5.3 Motion Perception • without motion -> unable to bike or drive, have trouble with writing, eating, and walking • motion is based on assumption that objects are retreating not shrinking (smaller) and objects are getting larger = approaching • brain perceives continuous movement as rapid series of varying images • phil phenomenon: an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession 4.5.4 Perceptual Constancy • perceptual constancy: perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent shapes, size, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change. Shape and Size Constancies • sometimes an objects shape may seem to change but it does not • shape constancy = perceive form of familiar objects • size constancy = perceive objects with constant size even when distance causes it to vary • Example: we assume a car is larger enough to carry people even from afar when it seems tiny Lightness Constancy • we perceive an object as having a constant lightness even while its illumination varies • perceived lightness depends on relative luminance (amount of light object reflects to surroundings) • color constancy: perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object • we perceive objects not in isolation but in their environment context • perception, depth perception, motion perception, and perceptual constancy illuminate how we organize our visual experiences 4.6 Perceptual Interpretation • we learn to link an object’s distance with its size • the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups.the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste. (unsure where belongs) • German philosopher Immanuel Kant-> knowledge comes from our inborn ways of organizing sensory experiences. • John Locke -> knowledge is through experience 4.6.1 Sensory Deprivation and Restored Vision • cataracts - clouded lenses that only allow the person to see light and shadows -> after surgery could tell difference between figures and sense colors • sight recognizes object by touch • Experience guides and sustains the brain’s development -> perceptions • sensory restrictions later in life do no permanent damage 4.6.2 Perceptual Adaption • perceptual adaption: in vision, the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field • humans adapt to distorting lenses quickly (maybe few minutes to adjust) • Example: given radical glasses (turns your world upside down) and be able to adapt • George Stratton(psychologist) : first person to experience a right-side- up retinal image while standing upright 4.6.3 Perceptual Set • perceptual set: a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another • People perceive an adult-child pair as looking more alike when told they are parent and child • Example: a photo posted with title "Monster" = most people would see a monster, but the some stated its a carved tree trunk • it can influence what we hear, taste differences • Example: french fries taste better when in a Mcdonald's bag rather than a plain white bag • through experience we form concepts, or schemas, that organize and interpret unfamiliar information Context Effects • hearing sad music predispose people to perceive a sad meaning in spoken homophonic words (morning = mourning) • effects of perceptual set and context show how experience helps us construct perception Emotion and Motivation • perceptions are influenced by emotions too • Example: a target seems farther away to those throwing a heavy rather than a light object at it. • a one-second exposure to a drawing, views tend to instantly perceive their hoped for object 4.7 Is There Extrasensory Perception? • extrasensory perception(ESP): the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition. • parapsychology: the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis • if ESP was real it would over turn scientific understanding 4.7.1 Claims of ESP • telepathy: mind-to-mind communication • Clairvoyance :perceiving remote events • Precognition:perceiving future events 4.7.2 Premonitions or Pretensions • analyses of psychic visions reveal are no better than guesses • vague predictions can later be interpreted to match events • stunning coincidences can occur given billions events happening in a day • with enough time and people the improbable becomes inevitable 4.7.3 Putting ESP to Experimental Test • agreed by believers and skeptics that parapsychology needs a reproducible phenomenon and a theory to explain it Example: in laboratory experimenter controls what the "psychic" sees and hears -> "psychic" controls what an audience sees and hears on stage 6. brains auditory cortex still responds to sound stimuli during sleep 5.1.1 Biological Rhythms and Sleep Circadian Rhythm • circadian rhythm: the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle. • Example: temperature and wakefulness • body temp. rises in the morning, peaks during the day, drops at night • bright lights in the morning activates our sensitive retinal proteins -> signals to brain to wake up ( produce less sleep induced hormones, melatonin ) • bright lights at night delay sleep -> biological clock is reset when sleeping in late Sleep Stages • we pass through 5 distinct sleep stages about every 90 minutes in sleep • REM sleep: rapid eye movement sleep; a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur • alpha waves: the relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state • sleep: periodic, natural loss of consciousness • Experiment: done by William Dement to a sleep deprived man to click for every flash he saw but when he missed one unknown to him, he had fallen asleep and didn't realize it • hallucination: false sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus. (stage 1) • stage 2: clearly asleep though can be easily waken • stage 3: transitional stage (deep sleep) -> stage 4: deep sleep • delta waves; the large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep REM Sleep • NREM Sleep: non–rapid eye movement sleep; encompasses all sleep stages except for REM sleep. • during REM sleep your heart rate rises, breathing becomes rapid and irregular, every 1/2 minute your eyes dart around under the eye lid • brain stem blocks messages leaving muscles relaxed - other than toe, finger, or facial twitch -> body is paralyzed • sleep cycle is repeated about every 90 minutes 5.1.2 Why Do We Sleep • everyone needs 8 hours of sleep = false • sleep patterns are influenced by age and culture • modern light bulbs,internet, social diversions delay sleep • adults can sleep up to 9 hours if uninterrupted • enough sleep -> efficient work, sustain better moods, feel awake and refreshed The Effect of Sleep Loss • sleep -> strengthen memory, increase concentration, boost mood, moderate hunger and obesity, fortify the disease-fighting immune system, lessen rates of fatal accidents • teens suffer from sleep deprivation -> 6 -7 hours of sleep a night • 80% of students are sleep deprived -> students work below potential • sleep deprivation causes you to gain weight ->body produces hunger arousing hormone (ghrelin) -> increases stress hormones (cortisol) -> stimulates body to make fat • less sleep = more vulnerable to obesity, infections, cancer Sleep Theories • sleep protects -> those who don't navigate around cliffs and rocks leave descendants • sleep helps us recuperate -> helps store and repair brain tissue • new research -> sleep makes memories -> restores and rebuilds our fading memories • dreams feed creative thinking 5.1.3 Sleep Disorders • insomnia: recurring problems in falling or staying asleep. • from middle age on sleep is seldom interrupted • insomnia complainers tend to overestimate the time they need to fall asleep • most common quick fix = sleeping pills and alcohol • natural alternatives -> exercise regularly (late afternoon), avoid caffeine after early afternoon and rich foods before bed, sleep on a regular schedule, hide the clock, • narcolepsy: a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks. The sufferer may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times. (brain disease) • attacks are usually less than 5 minutes • sleep apnea: a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and repeated momentary awakenings • those who suffer from sleep apnea usually don't realize it • it is associated with obesity • night terrors: a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during Stage 4 sleep, within two or three hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered. • sleep walking and sleep talking is a stage 4 disorder -> runs in the family 5.1.4 Dreams What We Dream • dreams: a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind. • tend involve familiar details of our life - in our mind personal encounters we relish or regret • People commonly dream of repeatedly failing in an attempt to do something; of being attacked, pursued, or rejected; or of experiencing misfortune • manifest content: according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream • Example: People in hunter-gatherer societies often dream of animals; urban Japanese rarely do • anything that happens during the 5 minutes just before we fall asleep is typically lost from memory Why We Dream • To satisfy our own wishes -> Dreams provide a psychic safety valve that discharges otherwise unacceptable feelings. • latent content: according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream • Freud believes that most adult dreams have an underlying erotic message • To file away memories -> dreams may help sift, sort, and fix the day’s experiences in our memory • to develop and preserve neural pathways -> stimulating neural pathways • to make sense of neural static -> dreams erupt from neural activity spreading upward from the brain stem • limbic system or the visual centers active during dreaming, and dreaming itself may be impaired • to reflect cognitive dreaming -> to see dreams are maturation and development • REM rebound: the tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM sleep deprivation 5.2 Hypnosis • hypnosis: a social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur 5.2.1 Facts and Falsehood Can Anyone Experience Hypnosis? • Because we are told and expect something to happen causing us to believe it • Example: who can carry out a suggestion not to smell or react to a bottle of ammonia held under their nose—are those who easily become deeply absorbed in imaginative activities • anyone who can turn inward and imagine is able to experience some degree of hypnosis Can Hypnosis Enhance Recall of Forgotten Events? • age regression—the supposed ability to relive childhood experiences • it hasn't been proven that hypnosis can enhance recall of forgotten events due to age and memory loss Can Hypnosis Force People to Act Against Their Will? • An authoritative person in a legitimate context can induce people— hypnotized or not—to perform some unlikely acts Can Hypnosis Be Therapeutic? • posthypnotic suggestions: a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors • a women who suffered from open sores for 20 years used hypnosis to relieve her pain -> sores disappeared in 3 months • drug, alcohol, and smoking addictions have not responded well to hypnosis Can Hypnosis Alleviate Pain? • unhypnotized people putting their hand in a ice bath feel intense pain while hypnotized people told to feel no pain putting their hand in an ice bath feel little to no pain • light hypnosis can reduce fear • if deeply hypnotized major surgery can be done with out anesthesia 5.2.2 Explaining the Hypnotized State Hypnosis as a solid phenomenon • interpretations and attentional spotlight influence our ordinary perceptions. • more they like and trust the hypnotist, the more they allow that person to direct their attention and fantasies • If an experimenter eliminates their motivation for acting hypnotized—by stating that hypnosis reveals their “gullibility”—subjects become unresponsive. Hypnosis as Divided Consciousness • hypnotized subjects will sometimes carry out suggested behaviors on cue, even when they believe no on is watching • When deeply hypnotized people in one experiment were asked to imagine a color, areas of their brain lit up as if they were really seeing the c.lor • dissociation: a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others. • hypnotic pain relief may be due to selective attention • PET scans showing that hypnosis reduces brain activity in a region that processes painful stimuli, but not in the sensory cortex • hypnosis is suggest, is an extension both of normal principles of social influence and of everyday dissociations between our conscious awareness and our automatic behaviors. 5.3 Drugs and Consciousness • psychoactive drug: a chemical substance that alters perceptions and moods. 5.3.1 Dependence and Addiction • tolerance: the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug’s effect. • as the brain adapts the user needs large doses to experience the same effect • affects the brain, heart, and liver • withdrawal: the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug. • physical dependence: a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued • psychological dependence: a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions. Misconception About Addiction • addiction: compulsive drug craving and use, despite adverse consequences. (physical symptoms such as aches, nausea, and distress following sudden withdrawal.) • Myth 1: Addictive drugs quickly corrupt; for example, morphine taken to control pain is powerfully addictive and often leads to heroin abuse • morphine give to control pain rarely develops cravings of the addict who use of a mood altering drug • even for a very addictive drug only about 15% of people get addicted in the first 10 years of use • Myth 2 : Addictions can no be voluntarily overcome; therapy is required. • therapy and group support may be helpful but people often recover on their own • Myth 3: We can extend the concept of addiction to cover not just drug dependencies, but a whole spectrum of repetitive, pleasure seeking behaviors. 5.3.2 Psychoactive Drugs • 3 major categories = depressants, stimulants, hallucinogens Depressants • depressants: drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions • alcohol is a depressant in both large and small amounts -> (lower inhibitions, slows neural processing, disrupts memory formation and reduces self-awareness • alcohol is a equal opportunity drug -> increases harmful tendencies (easily angered and aggressive after drinking) , increases health tendencies • large amounts of alcohol = Reactions slow, speech slurs, skilled performance deteriorates. • accidents occur and several hundred thousands die from alcohol -> drunk driving • alcohol disrupts processing of recent memories into long term ( heavy drinkers may not recall the people they just met) • prolonged and excess drinking can shrink the brain, especially in women ( less stomach enzymes to digest alcohol) in danger of lung, brain, and liver than men do • alcohol reduces self awareness -> people want to suppress awareness of failure or shortcomings = drink to feel good • excess drinking is common for people with low self esteem experience pain • 3 factors of alcohol + sex = perfect storm : sensation seeking and peer influences simultaneously push people toward risky sex, desire of sex leads people to drink and get their partners to drink, drinking disinhibits, when sexually aroused men and women are more disposed to casual sex • barbiturate: drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment • Nembutal, Seconal, and Amytal are sometimes prescribed to induce sleep or reduce anxiety • large doses can cause impaired memory and judgement and even death • opiates: opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety. • when abusing opiates users pupil constrict, breathing slows, and lethargy sets in as blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety • long term use -> gnawing cravings, a need for a larger fix, extreme discomfort from withdrawal • when flooded with artificial opiate the brain stops producing its own opiates, endorphin. Stimulants • stimulants: drugs (such as caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines, cocaine, and Ecstasy) that excite neural activity and speed up body functions • amphetamines: drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes • methamphetamine: a powerfully addictive drug that stimulates the central nervous system, with speeded-up body functions and associated energy a
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