arch history miderm sophmore.docx

4 Pages
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Department
Architecture
Course Code
ARC 234
Professor
Hadas Steiner

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How did architecture deem to repress in the 18 century “The sublime” was established originally as an aesthetic concept by Anthony Ashley cooper. Due to expansions and trade with the east the concept of the sublime was adopted as an aesthetic quality in nature. Sublimity is said to be beyond calculation, measurement or imitation. The publication of “On the Sublime” (a book that discussed aesthetics and literature) launched a development based on the aesthetic dialect between the sublime and the beautiful. Edmund Burke was the first to renounce that the sublime and beauty are mutually exclusive, and that the sublime is capable of instilling powerful dark emotions like horror, darkness, uncertainty, and solitude. Burke had an antitheoretical idea of the sublime and even suggested that ugliness could be sublime. He studied the dual emotional quality of fear and attraction and how we can experience terror but are drawn to it with fascination. Burk described emotions attributed to the sublime as negative pain and how “delight” is caused by the removal of pain and confronting the sublime. “Terror is in all cases whatsoever, the railing principle of the sublime.” –Edmund Burke. The publication of his book “treatises on the sublime and beautiful” inspired prison architect “Jeremy Bentham” to study the human soul almost mathematically. Doing so, he developed the ability to control and install fear in inmates without harming them. Using architecture to keep people in solitude he designed a prison- The Panopticon (1785). The Panoptic on had massive daunting walls and had a semicircular plan with an “inspection house” at its center from which the inmates are watched. The concept was to allow a single watchman to watch all the inmates, but using special, strategically placed shades the inmates could not see the guard. Not being able to know when they were being watched elicited fear and instilled order; the inmates behaved as if they were constantly closely watched. Bentham promoted the design of the penopticon as one that is beneficial to any institutions that require surveillance such as schools, hospitals and factories. An example of the concept being utilized was the “Royal Salt Works (1775)” at France by architect Ledoux. Ledoux was known for using architecture to reform society, this was implemented in this structure. The design reflected hierarchical organization that had an entrance with a guard room on one side and a prison other other. At the center was the house of the director and behind that, the salt works factory. The workers were housed in a semicircle setup along the circumference around the factory (like a theater), in summary reflective of his utopian quest. During this time it was deemed that the urban presence of prisons would have to substitute for the public torture, such designs called for a structure that would project the confused lies contained as well as the force that has contained them. Walls were marked with deep recesses, high, thick walls and strong projections. What did the individual represent in the city of ideals and styles? 1)Alberti- (1404-1472) He wrote 10 books of architecture for the common people. Alberti saw the use of nature as an interpretation of god making architects gods. He invented the pilaster as a column within a wall and used for structure only. His treatise “on the art of building” was the first treatise of the renaissance and covered a range from history, town planning to philosophy of beauty and nature. Alberti opened up his theories and ideals of the Florentine Renassaince to the people. 2) Borromini- Baroque period; manipulated classical form using geometric rationales. He was Michelangelo’s son but due to his idiosyncratic style and temper/social disorders issues he was not as publically renowned as was Bernini. Borromini was known between architects for designing buildings based on their programmatic needs. How do these writings stand out? Albert- -the books or treatises unlike Vitruvius’s books were written for the common people and some even included others and illustrations to aid in understandi
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