Chapter 10: Emotions
1) What is emotion?
a. What are its three components?
Emotion is a complex psychophysiological experience of an individual state of mind as interacting
with biochemical (internal) and environmental (external) influence.
2) What is the James-Lange Theory?
James-Lange theory states that in response to internal or external situation, the autonomic nervous
system creates physiological events such as muscular tension, a rise in heart rate, perspiration, and
dryness of the mouth. Our brain would then process these information and tell us what our emotion
is. Thus, emotions are feelings which come about as a result of these physiological changes, rather
than being their cause.
3) What is the limbic system?
a. What does it do?
Limbic system is a set of brain structure that includes the hypothalamus, amygdale, anterior thalamic
nuclei, septum, limbic cortex and fornix. The system operates by influencing the endocrine system
and the autonomic nervous system.
b. Primary function is involved in motivation and emotion.
c. Part of the limbic system are involve in learning and memory
d. The amygdale is involve in emotion (feelings, expression of emotion, emotional memories
and recognising emotion in other people.
4) Which hormones and neurotransmitters are particularly important for the regulation of
Serotonin and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is important for regulating aggression
Stronger serotonergic tone seem to result in less aggression**
a. More serotonin = Greater control of impulsive behaviour
i. Still have motivation but can control behavior
b. Complicated story
Low serotonin turnover measured by 5-HIAAcorrelated with impulsivity and aggression
In mice, social isolation decreases serotonin release
c. Isolated male are more aggressive 5) What is the startle reflex? Freezing behavior? How are they used in animals to measure fear
Startle reflex is unlearned fear.
Freezing behaviour is in response to anxiety
a. When a rat is in fear, it will jump. The base would them measure the impact of the jump and
thus determine the level of fear
b. To test