MGT 301 Study Guide - Comprehensive Midterm Guide: Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, Scientific Management

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University of Dayton
MGT 301
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
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Organizational Behavior
The study of human behavior in work settings
Examples of work experiments:
1. US Steel
2. McCormick (ville)
3. Pullman Towns paternalistic, worker perks
Scientific Management:
Frederick Taylor, Harvard professor, implemented the study of human behavior with the
scientific method in workplace environments
o Focus = Work
o Basis
Hostile labor relationship (Pullman, Homestead)
Potential for greater efficiency/better management
Started consulting for business
o Solution = Scientific method
Taylor is contacted by Beth. Steel where he sets up a procedure to take the amount of workers
from 500 to 140
Talos hallege as that he teated all people the sae hih leads to…
Human Relations approach:
Hawthorne Studies
o Purpose: scientific management study of breaks, lighting, etc.
o “et of studies @ Weste Eletis Hathoe plat
o 1st results were confusing because it found that more breaks and shorter work days
actually resulted in better performance
o Hawthorne Effect many things > production
o Shows difficulty of human research
Contingency approaches:
Emphasis on person and situation
Very popular today
Intuition & Empirical Research
Intuition: ou gut feelig as eplaatio of ehaio
Research improves ability to predict behavior.
o Bases decisions on best available evidence
o Eouages aages to eoe oe eidee ased i thikig/atios
Example:
o Social recognition
o Does it produce higher performance?
Burger King Study
Some managers received training in social recognition; they were
compared ith othes ho didt get taiig
Correlation between social recognition & job performance was .28
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Reduced drive through wait times from 62 to 43 seconds
Correlation between social recognition & retention was .20
Restaurants that train in social recognition had 16% better
retention rate
What do managers do?
Likets stud
Over 1,000 managers at AT&T
o Most of the time, managers were in meetings both scheduled and unscheduled
Tasks that managers perform
1. Planning
2. Controlling (motivating)
3. Leading
4. Organizing
*Organizational Structure
The patte of jos, people ad goups i a ogaizatio… a ipotat ause of idiidual ad
group behavior.
o Horizontal differentiation: width of an organizational chart. Division of the tasks the
company performs. This can take many forms.
Functional structure
Product structure
Customer structure
Matrix: puts several things together. As an associate, you report to two
managers. They are pretty popular, especially in Europe.
o Vertical differentiation: height of an organization chart. Division of people. American
firms are usually pretty tall.
o Span of control: the average number of direct reports in an organization.
Inverse relation to vertical differentiation
Optimal span of control: depends on the industry (5, give or take 2)
o Formalization: number of rules, regulations, procedures you have to perform to do
business
The more of these, the more formal the organization
A company with 1 rule: Use best judgment in all situations (Nordstrom)
Very formal organization = a bureaucracy
A trend is to strive to be less formal, less bureaucratic
o Centralization: the degree to which power is concentrated in one or few people.
Perception
What is it? The process by which we select, organize, and interpret the input from our senses.
o Count the Fs exercise
What are the effects? Perception can play a role in performance appraisals, decision making,
job interviews and more
Perception by managers and employees: Likert
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