CHEM 1003 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Intermolecular Force, Stereoisomerism, Mirror Image

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Beer’s Law
Can examine the concentration of salicylic acid present in both your crude and
recrystallized aspirin samples
Can measure how much light a compound absorbs (a.k.a. its absorbance; a
measure of how much light is absorbed at a given wavelength)
The more concentrated a sample is, the higher its absorbance.
TLC
Rf is the relative distance travelled by a substance as compared to the distance
travelled by the solvent
Solubility
Like dissolves like
Solvent substance it is in
Solute substance that mixed in (sugar)
Soluble substance completely dissolves in another (sugar in water)
Miscible 2 substances mix together to form homogenous solution
H-bond
Intermolecular force
OH/NH/SH always bigger +
Salt forms
Preferred as drugs
Higher melting point (longer shelf life)
No odor
Incr. H20 solubility
Receptors (COX 1 and 2)
Proteins that interact with other proteins or molecules
Hormones
Chemical messengers that travel from 1 part of body to other
Enzymes
Large biological molecules that act as highly selective catalysts
o Effect rate of rxns and formation of metabolites
o Metabolite anything produced by an enzyme
Aspirin thorn
Ibuprofen cylinder
Cox 1
Produces metabolites responsible for
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o Proper kidney function and stomach lining (why aspirin is known for
stomach ulcers)
o Blood clotting agents (aspirin)
Cox 2
Produces metabolites responsible for
o Fever, swelling, pain sensitivity
o Inhibit blood vessel dilation
NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
Act on/inhibit cox 1 and 2
None without heart failure problems now stopped making them
Substrate
Substances whose rxns are catalyzed by an enzyme
Lock and key model
Drug is top
o Natural substrate replaces top
Pharmacophore
Portion of molecule that determines biological effects of a drug (active area)
Combination Chemistry
Creation of large #s of molecules that can be rapidly screened in vitro for
potential new drugs
Adding on formula (ABC + BCA + CAB)
Benefits
o Many molecules can be created @ rapid rate
o Cost less
o Large libraries of bioactive lead compounds can be produced for cheap
Penicillin V (Serendipity)
Discovered by chance occurrence by chance
Thioether (-s-)
Alexander Flemming
Spawned the idea you can manufacture medicine
Chiral
Cant be a reflection on either side
Enantiomer
o Chiral and not mirror image
o Have identical physical properties
o Plane polarized light (shine equal degrees right/left)
Constitutional Stereoisomers
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