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[ANSC 101] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 22 pages long Study Guide!

Animal Science
Course Code
ANSC 101
Study Guide

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ANSC 101
ANSC 101: Lecture 4, The Dairy Industry
- 9.3 million cows in the US
- 2 billion pounds of milk per year
- Found near population centers.
- The largest dairy states are: California, Idaho, Wisconsin, New York, and Pennsylvania
- Cow: Mature female, has given birth
- Heifer: Female that has not given birth.
Breeds (All used for dairy)
- Holstein-Friesian (black and white spots)
- Jersey (all brown)
- Guernsey- (brown with white spots)
- Ayshire- (white with brown spots)
- Brown Swiss (greyish brown)
Details of a Dairy Farm
- Most farms grow their own feed. Feed is hay supplemented with grain, soy and other
- Usually raise heifers to repopulate their herd so it is not necessary to ship them in.
- The number of dairy farms is declining, while average size is growing.
Life Cycle of a Dairy Cow
- Cows begin having calves at age 2.
- Farmers like for cows to calf (have a baby) every 12-14 months.
- Gestation is 9 months.
- Cow will will stop producing milk 2 months before the birth of a calf.
- Most males born to a dairy cow will be used for veal.
Milking techniques
- Can be milked by hand in a tie stall
- Conventional/ Automatic take-offs (ATO) - Cows are moved into stalls and milking
machine is put on cow, and automatically falls off when cow is done.
- Robotic/ Automated Milking System (AMS) – Cows decide when to go in, and tags let
farmers know if all cows have gone in for milking
- In all techniques an iodine solution is put on the teets prior to and after milking to lower
risk of infection
- In the second two methods, milk is sent to the bulk tank and will eventually be picked
- up by milk distributors.
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