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CCJS 100- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 16 pages long!)


Department
Criminology and Criminal Justice
Course Code
CCJS 100
Professor
Justine Madoo
Study Guide
Midterm

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UMD
CCJS 100
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Adjudication: the process of determining whether the defendant is guilty
Arrest: the physical taking of a person into custody on the grounds that there
is a reason to believe that he or she has committed a criminal offense. Police
are limited to using only reasonable force in making an arrest. The purpose of
the arrest is to hold the accused for a court proceeding
Crime control model: a model of the criminal justice system that assumes
freedom is so important that every effort must be made to repress crime;
emphasizes efficiency, speed, finality, and the capacity to apprehend, try,
convict, and dispose of a high proportion of offenders
Crimes: actions that violate laws defining which socially harmful behaviors
will be subject to the government's power to impose punishments
Discretion: the authority to make decisions without references to specific
rules or facts, suing instead ones own judgment, allows for individualization
and informality in the administration of justice
Discrimination: differential treatment of individuals or groups based on race,
ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, or economic status.
Disparity: a difference between groups that may be explained either by
legitimate factors or by discrimination
Dual court system: a system consisting of a separate judicial system for each
system for each state in addition to a national system. Each case is tried in a
court of the same jurisdiction as that od the law or laws broken
Due process model: a model of the criminal justice system that assumes
freedom is so important that every effort must be made to ensure that criminal
justice decisions are based on reliable information; it emphasizes the
adversarial process, the rights of defendants, and formal decision-making
procedures
Evidence-based practices: policies developed through guidance from research
studies that demonstrate which approaches are most useful and cost effective
for advancing desired goals
Exchange: A mutual transfer or resources: a balance of benefits and deficits
that flow from behavior based on decisions about the values and costs of
alternatives
Federalism: system of government in which power is divided between a
Vocabulary*
Wednesday,) September) 6,)2017
1:18)PM
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Federalism: system of government in which power is divided between a
central government and a regional government
Felonies: serious crimes usually carrying a penalty of death or incarceration
for more that one year
Filtering process: a screening operation; a process by which criminal justice
officials screen out some cases while advancing others to the next level of
decision making
Indictment: a document returned by a grand jury as a true bill charging an
individual with a specific crime on the basis of a determination of probable
cause as presented by a prosecuting attorney
Information: a document charging an individual with an specific crime. It is
prepared by a prosecuting attorney and presented to a court at the preliminary
hearing
Mala in se: Offenses that are wrong by their very nature, rap and murder
Mala prohibita: Offenses prohibited by law but not necessarily wrong in
themselves, gambling and prostitution
Misdemeanors: offenses less serious than felonies and usually punishable by
incarceration of no more than one year in jail, probation, or intermediate
sanctions
Plea bargain: a defendant's plea of guilty to a criminal charge with the
reasonable exception of receiving some consideration from the state for doing
so, usually a reduction of the charge. The defendants ultimate goal is a
penalty lighter than the one formally warranted by the charged offense
System: complex whole consisting of interdependent parts whose actions are
directed toward goals and are influenced by the environment within which
they function
Warrant: a court order authorizing police officers to take certain actions- for
example, to arrest suspects or to search premises
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