CCJS100.Midterm.Review.Guide-1 (1).docx

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Criminology and Criminal Justice
CCJS 100

Terms to Know (know the definitions from the book, matching, true/false) Crimes: actions that violate laws defining which socially harmful behaviors will be subject to the gov’t power to impose punishments Mala in se: offenses that are wrong by it's very nature Mala prohibita: wrong because our government says so, offenses prohibited by law but not wrong in themselves Dark figure of crime: a metaphor that emphasizes the dangerous dimension of crimes that are never reported to the police Criminogenic: having factors thought to bring about criminal behavior in an individual Inchoate offense: incomplete offense, violence isn't comitted Misdemeanors: less serious offenses, incarcerated for less than a year Civil infractions: minor offenses that are typically punishable by small fines and that produce no criminal record for the offender Felonies: serious crimes, incarcerated for more than a year in prison up until death possibly Entrapment: defense that the individual was induced by the police to commit the criminal act Double jeopardy: subjecting of a person to prosecution more than once in the same jurisdiction for the same offense; prohibited by the 5 amendment Discretion: the authority to make decisions without referring to rules or facts, using instead one’s own judgment Differential response: patrol strategy to assign calls and assume the appropriate response Clearance rate: percentage of crimes the police believe they have solved through arrests Search: gov’t officials examination of and hunt for evidence on a person or in a place in a manner that intrudes on reasonable expectations of privacy Seizure: situations in which police officers use their authority to deprive people of their liberty or th property and which must not be unreasonable according to the 4 amendment Jurisdiction: geographic territory, legal boundaries within which control may be exercised Frankpledge: system in old English law in which members of a tithing (group of 10 families) pledged to be responsible for keeping order and bringing violators of the law to court Appellate Courts: courts that do not try criminal cases, but hear appeals of decisions of lower courts. Affidavit: written statement of facts supported by oath, gives explanation of probable cause used to search a person/property Stop: government officials interference of freedom of movement, lasts about an hour and can only extend up to a few hours Arrest: physical taking of a person into custody on the grounds that there is reason to believe that he or she has committed a criminal offense. Reasonable suspicion: officers belief based on articulated facts, suspicion to believe that someone is going to commit a crime Probable cause: evidence found proves that a crime is being committing either right then and there, or has already been committed Federalism: system of government where powers are divided b/w central gov’t and a regional gov’t Cases Gideon v Wainwright: indigent defendants have a right to counsel when charged with serious crimes for which they could face 6 or more months of incarceration Tennessee v Garner: deadly force may not be used against an unarmed and fleeing suspect unless necessary to prevent the escape and unless the officer has probable cause to believe that the suspect poses a significant threat of death or serious injury to the officers or others Miranda vArizona: U.S. Supreme court decision declaring that suspects in custody must be informed of their rights to remain silent and be represented during questioning Terry v Ohio: supreme court decision endorsing police officers authority to stop and frisk suspects on the streets when there is reasonable suspicion that they are armed and involved in criminal activity Chimel v California: supreme court decision that endorsed warrantless searches for weapons and evidence in the immediate vicinity of people who are lawfully arrested. Topics/Concepts Chapter 1 • Crime control v due process model o Crime control: criminal justice system that assumes freedom is important that every effort must be made to repress crime o Due process: criminal justice system that assumes freedom is important that every effort must be made to ensure that criminal justice decisions are based on reliable information • 3 goals of the Criminal Justice System o Doing justice o Controlling crime o Preventing crime • % of cases resolved through plea bargains- 95% • 4 Characteristics of the Criminal Justice System: • Criminal Justice Wedding Cake model: 4 tiers, misdemeanors, less serious felonies, serious felonies, celebrated cases Chapter 2 • 6 types of crimes & example of crimes that fall under each o Violent crimes: homicide, rape, assault o Property crimes: larceny, shoplifting, embezzlement o Public-order crimes: public drunkenness, vandalism, disorderly conduct • Visible Crime – 3 types, and other names for this type of crime: street and ordinary crime o Occupational crimes: legal business or profession o Organized crime: money laundering, commercial arson o Victimless crimes: prostitution, gambling, drug sales and use o Political crimes: government related crimes o Cyber crime: child pornography o Visible crime • Difference between Classical and Positivist approaches to crime: classical-rational choice, positivist-no control no free will • Cesare Beccaria: father of classical school • Cesare Lombroso: biological aspects of crime • UCR, NIBRS, NCVS: uniform crime report-fbi-data from police agencies-not all crimes are reported. National incident based reporting system-describe each event that occurs, National Crime Victimization Survery-bureau of justice statistics, done by surveys • 3 types of Positivist approaches: biological, psychological, • Examples of sociological approach: contact with the social world, and factors such as race, age, gender, and income mold the offender’s personality and actions • Crime rate since 1980s: declining Chapter 3 • Substantive v procedural criminal law o Substantive law: law that defines acts that are subject to punishment and specifies punishments for such offenses o Procedural law: law defining the procedures that criminal justice officials must follow in enforcement, adjudication, and corrections • 7 principles of criminal law o Legality o Actus Reus o Causation o Harm o Concurrence o Mens Rea o Punishment • 2 types of defenses & the
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