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ENGL 101- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 22 pages long!)


Department
English
Course Code
ENGL 101
Professor
Amanda Allen
Study Guide
Midterm

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UMD
ENGL 101
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Eng101 Lecture 6: Battle of Britain (Part 1)
Events
July 3, 1940: British initiate Operation Catapult to neutralize French navy
July 10: First German bombers attack over English Channel
July 19: Hitler urges Britain to make peace
August 13: Eagle Day; more than 1,400 German planes attack southern England
September 7: Beginning of “London Blitz”
September 17: Hitler indefinitely postpones plans for ground invasion of England
Key People
Winston Churchill -  British prime minister who took office in May 1940; rallied British people
and military during Battle of Britain.
Britain's Fear
After France fell, the British government was certain that Germany’s next move would be
against the United Kingdom. These fears were confirmed when British intelligence intercepted
coded German radio transmissions that made it clear that an invasion of Britain was imminent.
Preparations in Britain had long been under way, and aircraft, guns, and ammunition were
arriving by ship from the United States on a regular basis, despite the constant threat of attack
by German submarines. The British would rely upon air and naval power as their primary
defense, as they knew that they would quickly lose the war if German troops set foot on British
soil in large numbers.
Operation Catapult
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As Britain braced itself, one of its immediate goals was to prevent the French navy from falling
into German hands. As a result, Operation Catapult was put into action on July 3, 1940. A
British naval force based in Gibraltar was ordered to Mers-el-Kebir, Algeria, where much of the
remaining French navy had fled. The British offered the French crews a choice: they could sail
immediately for Britain and join in the fight against Germany, hand their ships over to the British,
allow the British to move the ships somewhere safe in the West Indies, or scuttle their fleet. The
French crews refused all four options, leaving the British little choice but to fire upon their allies,
destroying the ships and killing over 1,200 French sailors. French ships at several other
locations, however, were seized without incident.
Channel Battle
The German code name for its plan to conquer the United Kingdom was Operation Sea Lion.
The operation began tentatively, as a series of probing bomber attacks against British ships in
the English Channel and ports in southern England in early July 1940. In fact, Hitler was still
debating whether to invade Britain or Russia first.
The first German bomber attack over the Channel came on July 10, 1940. Yet even as late as
July 19, Hitler made a last-minute speech advocating peace with Britain, presumably trying to
buy time. Britain ignored the appeal. Skirmishes over the Channel and coastal southern
England continued into August, but the Royal Air Force only rarely came out to defend the ships
in the channel, preferring to hold off until the German planes got closer to the mainland, nearer
to the limit of their range. As a result, British shipping in the Channel suffered heavy damage,
but the RAF was able to conserve pilots and planes for the coming battle.
Eagle Day
In early August 1940, Hitler decided to begin massive bombing raids on air bases and military
command posts in southern England, hoping to break Britain’s will. Germany would withhold
any attempt at a ground invasion, however, until it was clear that air superiority could be gained
over England. On August 13, which the German high command labeled “Eagle Day, Germany
sent more than 1,400bombers and fighters across the English Channel. The Germans brought
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